Question

Read Buddhism, Christianity, and the Prospects for World Religion within the Encountering the Real text and On the Soul, Metaphysics & Nichomachean Ethics by Aristotle (within the electronic documents I sent you). Compare how Aristotle and the Dalai Lama consider what is happiness, the ethical life, the wise man, and God. Write 2-4 pages on this topic.

Answer the following questions:
ARISTOTLE - MAIN POINTS, DE ANIME, METAPHYSICS, NICHOMACHEAN ETHICS & POLITICS
1. According to Aristotle what is the “potential” for existence of “finite things?”
A. The human soul
B. The spiritual realm
C. The physical realm
D. The material substratum
E. The animal soul

2. According to Aristotle what is the “actuality” at which all individuals (i.e. humans) orient themselves?
A. The immutable forms
B. The unmoved mover
C. The spiritual realm
D. The physis
E. The human soul

3. According to Aristotle what term means to “quest for the next higher or ultimate existence?”
A. Entelechy
B. Physis
C. Psyche
D. Epistrophe
E. Logos

4. According to Aristotle’s Nichomachean Ethics (Book X- Part 7) “[what] is thought to depend on [what]; for we are busy that we may have leisure, and make war that we may live in [what]?”
A. Virtue; reason; peace
B. Happiness; leisure; peace
C. Truth; actuality; turmoil
D. Reason; self-sufficiency; power
E. Pleasure; leisure; dominance

5. According to Aristotle’s Politics (Book VII- Part III) “he who violates [what] can never recover by any success, however great, what he has already lost in departing from [what]?”
A. Reason; truth
B. Virtue; the good of man
C. The law; virtue
D. Mankind; the public trust
E. Thought; reason

6. According to Aristotle’s De Anime (On the Soul) “the soul is in a way [what]?”
A. All thinking things
B. All perceived things
C. All existing things
D. All sensible things
E. All rational things

7. According to Aristotle’s Metaphysics (Book I- Part 2) what “are most knowable; for by reason of these, and from these, all other things come to be known, and not these by means of the things subordinate to them?”
A. The first potentials and causes
B. The first principles and causes
C. The tertiary principles and causes
D. The formal and final causes
E. The potential and actual causes

8. According to Aristotle’s Nichomachean Ethics (Book X- Part 7) “and the [what] that is spoken of must belong most to the contemplative activity… but the [what], even when by himself; can contemplate [what]… he is the most [what]?”
A. Self-sufficiency; statesman; oratory; dependent
B. Leisure; military man; virtue; self-sufficient
C. Leisure; man of action; deeds; successful
D. Reason; priest; God; faithful
E. Self-sufficiency; philosopher; truth; self-sufficient

9. According to Aristotle’s Politics (Book VII- Part III) “happiness is [what]?”
A. Virtue
B. Activity
C. Thought
D. Materiality
E. Reason

10. According to Aristotle’s Metaphysics (Book XII- Part 8) what “for the [what] has no special discussion of the subject; for those who speak of ideas say the ideas are [what], and they speak of numbers now as unlimited, now as limited by the number [what]; but as for the reason why there should be just so many numbers, nothing is said with any demonstrative exactness?”
A. Theory of ideas; numbers; 3
B. Theory of causes; numbers; 7
C. Theory of potentiality; finite; 0
D. Theory of ideas; numbers; 10
E. Theory of causes; infinite; 666

11. According to Aristotle’s De Anime (On the Soul) “according to common agreement there is nothing outside and separate in existence from [what]?”
A. Flexible spatial magnitudes
B. Sensible special magnitudes
C. Rational spatial magnitudes
D. Perceivable spatial magnitudes
E. Sensible spatial magnitudes

12. According to Aristotle’s Metaphysics (Book XII- Part 8) “the [what] is not movable either in itself or accidentally, but produces the [what]?”
A. First principle or primary being; primary eternal and single movement
B. First potential or primary being; primary ethereal and single movement
C. First potential or potential being; primary eternal and single movement
D. Formal principle or primary cause; secondary material and multiple movements
E. Single actuality; multiple potentialities

13. According to Aristotle’s Politics (Book VIII- Part III) “for I must repeat, once again, the first principle of all action is [what]?”
A. Reason
B. Work
C. Thinking
D. Leisure
E. Honor

14. According to Aristotle’s Metaphysics (Book XII- Part 9) “therefore it must be of itself that the divine thought thinks, since it is the most excellent of things, and its thinking is a [what]?”
A. Perfection of thought
B. Fulfillment of potential thought
C. Thinking on thinking
D. Fulfillment of perception
E. Thought on all His creation

15. According to Aristotle’s Nichomachean Ethics (Book X- Part 7) “[what] is the best thing in us?”
A. Virtue
B. Soul
C. Thought
D. Reason
E. Mind

PLATO – THE LAWS
16. According to Plato’s Laws “before [what] the immortal Gods have placed the sweat of [what], and long and steep is the way tither, and rugged at first; but when you have reached the top, although difficult before, it is then easy.”
A. Justice; sacrifice
B. Laws; survival
C. Truth; struggle
D. Independence; dependence
E. Virtue; labour

17. According to Plato’s Laws what is not a quality of the “tyrant?”
A. Noble nature
B. A good memory
C. Older man
D. Quick at learning
E. Courageous nature

18. According to Plato’s Laws it is stated “there the change is likely to be the easiest and the most rapid.” What type of government is being described?
A. Democracy
B. Polity
C. Oligarchy
D. Tyranny
E. Monarchy

19. According to Plato’s Laws what is known as “the distribution of the mind?”
A. Tyranny
B. Peace
C. Law
D. Justice
E. Love

20. According to Plato what individual is best “Fit to Rule?”
A. A Philosopher
B. The Enlightened One
C. The Philosopher who has found “True Knowledge”
D. The most Powerful and Peaceful Man
E. The duly elected Individual

BUDDHISM - PHASE OF THE BUDDHA & THE DIASPORA
21. According to the Buddha what is not one of the “Four Noble Truths?”
A. There is a cause to this suffering.
B. We can extend our craving.
C. There is much suffering in life.
D. We can get rid of craving.
E. There is a way to get rid of this craving or grasping.

22. Sidartha Gautama (a.k.a. The Buddha) did not deny the existence of many gods but did deny the existence of what traditional Hindu spiritual being?
A. Indra
B. Shiva
C. Vishnu
D. Brahma
E. Mitra

23. According to the Buddha which is not part of the “Morality or Ethics” category of the Eight Fold Path?
A. Right Action
B. Right Living
C. Right Effort
D. Right Speech
E. Right Thought

24. According to the Buddha which step is perhaps the most important of the Eight Fold Path for without it, the whole causal relationship of the doctrine, "Dependent Arising", would fall apart?
A. Right Mindfulness
B. Right Concentration
C. Right Thought
D. Right Intention
E. Right Effort

25. According to the Buddha within which of the “Five Grasping Groups or Aggregates” does the accumulation of karma take place?
A. Consciousness
B. Feeling
C. Perception
D. Sankharas
E. Arahat

26. According to the “Kaccayana-gotta-Sutta” - Samyutta-Nikaya 2:17 (the citation on Dependent Arising) in what order is the doctrine of Dependent Arising occurring and what does it arise to be?
A. Dependent upon ignorance arise the dispositions, arise consciousness; arises the psycho-physical personality, arise the six senses, arises contact; arises feeling; arises craving; arises grasping; arises becoming; arises birth; arises old age and death, grief, lamentation, suffering, dejection, and despair. Thus arises this entire mass of mind [rupa].
B. Dependent upon ignorance arise the dispositions, arise consciousness; arises the psycho-physical personality, arise the six senses, arises contact; arises feeling; arises craving; arises grasping; arises becoming; arises birth; arises old age and death, grief, lamentation, suffering, dejection, and despair. Thus arises this entire mass of suffering [dukka].
C. Dependent upon the dispositions, arises the psycho-physical personality, arise the six senses, arises contact; arises feeling; arises consciousness; arises craving; arises grasping; arises becoming; arises birth; arises old age and death, grief, lamentation, suffering, dejection, and despair. Thus arises this entire mass of the sankharas.
D. Dependent upon consciousness; arises the psycho-physical personality, arises contact; arises the six five senses; arises the mind; arises feeling; arises craving; arises grasping; arises becoming; arises birth; arises old age and death, grief, lamentation, suffering, dejection, and despair. Thus arises this entire mass of indwelling power [mana].
E. Dependent upon the dispositions, arise consciousness; arises the psycho-physical personality, arise the six senses, arises contact; arises feeling; arises craving; arises grasping; arises old age and birth; arises becoming; arises death, grief, lamentation, suffering, dejection, and despair. Thus arises this entire mass of dependent arising.

27. Within what form of Buddhism has “devotion to Buddha and Bodhisattvas” become prevalent?
A. Hinayana
B. Tharavada
C. Ch’ing Wei
D. Chin tan
E. Mahayana

28. Within Theravada Buddhism what are the two forms of meditation?
A. Vipassana; Sikhundona
B. Samaransa; Manuala
C. Samatha; Vipassana
D. Saruta; Mikoto
E. Yomi; Samatha

29. Within Buddhism who presides over a “Buddha field... named Sukhavati... generally known as ‘the Pure Land’?”
A. Vishnu
B. Tripitaka
C. Amitabha
D. Sunyata
E. Brahma

30. Within Buddhism what is the term for the “triple body” of Buddha reality (including the Absolute Body, the Enjoyment Body, and the Condescension Body)?
A. Trikaya
B. Tripitaka
C. Tendai
D. Sunyata
E. Amitabha

31. Within Buddhism who is one that merits Nirvana but lingers to help others and is a future Buddha?
A. Biodhidharma
B. Prajna
C. Manushi
D. Bodhisattva
E. Yogacara

32. What is the doctrine of Nagarjuna within Mahayana Buddhism “allowing a conditional distinction between samsara and nirvana, but asserting that in perfected wisdom all dharmas are empty?”
A. Amitabha
B. Manushi
C. Madhyamika
D. Upaya
E. Right Intention

33. Within Buddhism who is exempt from “new karma?” (i.e. ‘their old karma is exhausted; no new karma is being produced’)
A. Nichiren
B. Nagarjuna
C. All within samsara
D. Chunda
E. Arahats

34. Within Buddhism what is not a meaning of dharma (dhamma)?
A. The truth concerning nature
B. Observable events
C. Unseen events
D. Observable events
E. Observable phenomena

35. Within Buddhism what is known as anicca (anitya)?
A. The unreality of the self: no atman
B. Impermanence, the transitoriness of all things
C. Meditation at levels transcending ordinary consciousness
D. The enlightened monk
E. “Thirst,” desire or craving - the cause of re-birth

MODULE 4 – PROBLEM OF EVIL
36. According to Evil and Omnipotence by J.L. Mackie (within Module 4 of Encountering the Real: Faith and Philosophical Enquiry) what is supported as the argument of “the theologian?”
A. God is omnipotent; God is wholly good; yet no evil exists
B. God is not omnipotent; God is wholly good; yet evil exists
C. God is omnipotent; God is not wholly good; yet evil exists
D. God is omnipotent; God is wholly good; yet evil exists
E. God is not omnipotent; God is not wholly good; yet evil exists

37. According to Evil and Omnipotence by J.L. Mackie (within Module 4 of Encountering the Real: Faith and Philosophical Enquiry) the theological argument can be criticized most effectively “by way of the traditional problem of evil.” What is not a premise of Mackie’s argument against “the theologian?”
A. He [the theologian] must be prepared to believe what can be disproved by other beliefs he also holds
B. Religious beliefs lack rational support
C. Several parts of the theological doctrine are consistent with one another
D. He [the theologian] must be prepared to believe what cannot be proved
E. Religious beliefs are positively irrational

38. According to Evil and Soul Making by John Hick (within Module 4 of Encountering the Real: Faith and Philosophical Enquiry) “personal life is essentially free and self-directing.” What is the ultimate goal of the individual?
A. Through compelled responses and willing co-operation of individuals humans can become perfected persons whom the New Testament calls “children of God”
B. Through uncompelled responses and willing co-operation of individuals humans remain unperfected persons whom the New Testament calls “children of God”
C. Through compelled responses and unwilling co-operation of individuals humans can become perfected persons whom the New Testament calls “children of God”
D. Through compelled responses and willing co-operation of individuals humans remain perfected persons whom the New Testament calls “children of God”
E. Through uncompelled responses and willing co-operation of individuals humans can become perfected persons whom the New Testament calls “children of God”

39. According to The Free Will Defence by Alvin Plantinga (within Module 4 of Encountering the Real: Faith and Philosophical Enquiry) “a world containing creatures who are [what] is more valuable, all else being equal, than a world containing no free creatures at all. Now God can create free creatures, but He can’t cause or determine them to do only what is right. For if He does so, then they aren’t [what] after all; they do not do what is right freely.”
A. Naturally free
B. Significantly free
C. Nominally free
D. Unpredictably free
E. Morally free

40. According to The Inductive Argument from Evil Against the Existence of God by William Rowe (within Module 4 of Encountering the Real: Faith and Philosophical Enquiry) what is not a portion of the “Argument for Atheism?”
A. The exist instances of intense suffering which an omniscient being could have prevented
B. An omniscient being would prevent occurrence of any intense suffering it could
C. A wholly good being would prevent occurrence of any intense suffering it could
D. A wholly good being would not prevent occurrence of any intense suffering it could
E. The exist instances of intense suffering which an omnipotent being could have prevented

MODULE 5 – PRAGMATISM AND REFORMED EPISTEMOLOGY
41. According to The Will to Believe by William James (within Module 5 of Encountering the Real: Faith and Philosophical Enquiry) what are the two things within the “Religious Hypothesis?”
A. The best things are the more eternal things; We are better off if we believe the best things are more eternal
B. God is omnipotent; God is wholly good
C. God is omniscient; God is malevolent
D. The best things are the more material things; We are better off having scientific knowledge of all things
E. Evil exists; God is not omnipotent

42. According to Rational Religious Belief Without Arguments by Michael Bergmann (within Module 5 of Encountering the Real: Faith and Philosophical Enquiry) what philosopher or theologian is not listed as a proponent of the view “belief in God can be rational even if it is not based on any arguments?”
A. Rene Descartes
B. Aristotle
C. The Apostle Paul
D. Karl Marx
E. John Calvin

43. According to Rational Religious Belief Without Arguments by Michael Bergmann (within Module 5 of Encountering the Real: Faith and Philosophical Enquiry) what is not an objection to “Reformed Epistemology?”
A. The great pumpkin objection
B. Sinfulness does explain atheism
C. Religious interpretation of experimental evidence needs defense
D. Why doesn’t everyone believe in God
E. Religious disagreement as a reason for doubt

44. According to The Will to Believe by William James (within Module 5 of Encountering the Real: Faith and Philosophical Enquiry) what is his ultimate conclusion?
A. Respect one another’s religious freedom - this will lead to a spirit of inner and outer tolerance
B. Respect one another’s material freedom - this will lead to a spirit of inner and outer tolerance
C. Disrespect one another’s religious freedom - this will lead to a spirit of inner and outer tolerance
D. Disrespect one another’s intellectual freedom - this will lead to a spirit of inner and outer tolerance
E. Respect one another’s mental freedom - this will lead to a spirit of inner and outer tolerance

45. According to The Wager by Blaise Pascal (within Module 5 of Encountering the Real: Faith and Philosophical Enquiry) what is not a portion of his argument for God’s existence?
A. If the Christian God exists and you live a Christian life you will be rewarded with eternal paradise
B. The Christian God does not exist - but one can hope for His existence and live life accordingly
C. If the Christian God exists and you live a non-Christian life you will be rewarded with eternal damnation
D. If the Christian God does not exist and you live a Christian life you will be rewarded with living a good life
E. If the Christian God does not exist and you live a non-Christian life you lose nothing by way of punishment/good

MODULE 7 – PROBLEM OF RELIGIOUS DIVERSITY I
46. According to Buddhism, Christianity, and the Prospects for World Religion by The 14th Dalai Lama (within Module 7 of Encountering the Real: Faith and Philosophical Enquiry) what religion is not “directed to the achievement of permanent human happiness?”
A. Islam
B. Buddhism
C. Neopaganism
D. Christianity
E. Hinduism

47. According to Religious Pluralism and Ultimate Reality by John Hick (within Module 7 of Encountering the Real: Faith and Philosophical Enquiry) what is not a portion of “the function of a religion?”
A. Bring us to awareness of our true nature
B. Bring us to a right relationship with the ultimate divine reality
C. Bring us to an unawareness of evil
D. Bring us to awareness of our place in the Whole
E. Bring us to a right relationship into the presence of God

48. According to Buddhism, Christianity, and the Prospects for World Religion by The 14th Dalai Lama (within Module 7 of Encountering the Real: Faith and Philosophical Enquiry) “We Buddhists are supposed to save all sentient beings, but practically speaking, this may be too broad a notion for most people.” If this is true what should the Buddhist concentrate his efforts on saving from suffering?
A. All living beings
B. All human beings
C. The faithful human beings
D. Some human beings
E. The unfaithful human beings

49. According to Religious Pluralism and Ultimate Reality by John Hick (within Module 7 of Encountering the Real: Faith and Philosophical Enquiry) what is not considered a “religion?”
A. The semi-theistic faith of Mahayana Buddhism
B. The non-theistic faiths of Theravada Buddhism and Hinduism
C. The theistic faiths of Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Sikhism
D. The theistic Hinduism of the Bhagavad Gita
E. The naturalistic belief of communism and humanism

50. According to Buddhism, Christianity, and the Prospects for World Religion by The 14th Dalai Lama (within Module 7 of Encountering the Real: Faith and Philosophical Enquiry) “from the philosophical point of view” Buddhism states all but what?
A. God is not almighty
B. The universe has a creator
C. There is no such thing as a primordially pure being
D. The universe has no first cause
E. God is permanent

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Happiness
In their writings, both Aristotle and Dalai seek to explain the nature of ethical life, God, and happiness from a wise man’s perspective. In their examination, they use religious philosophy from multiple regions, which they triangulate to come up with a central argument, which would probably remain relevant despite the changing human nature and cultures. As such, by examining the true definitions of the core terms from a higher perspective, Dalai and Aristotle come up with ideas on these entities. Occasionally, their ideologies differ depending on the angle of argument or the base religion applied in the reasoning.
In their definition of happiness, both Aristotle admits that is achievable through personal decisions that lead to both moral and social conformity. However, their exploration of how these...

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