Case Study: Toby

Toby M. is a 6-year-old boy. He has documented diagnoses of Autism Spectrum Disorder and an intellectual disability. He is in Mrs. Ryan’s first grade classroom and receives in-home/community services 20 hours a week.

Toby does not use vocal words to communicate. Rather, he communicates through the use of simple gestures and through a basic Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS). Toby is under the care of his neurodevelopmental pediatrician who has prescribed Risperdal and Melatonin to address Toby’s challenging behaviors and sleep problems.

Current Behavioral Concerns
Toby engages in behavior problems that are in need of a behavior invention plan in school and at home/community.

Toby exhibits aggressive behavior. He has been noted to engage in hitting, slapping, pinching, biting, scratching, grabbing, and pulling the hair of other individuals. During baseline data collection aggression occurred on average 10 times per day at school and 3 times per day home.

Toby engages in self-injurious behavior. This includes, but is not limited to, biting himself, hitting himself in the head, and putting his hands into very hot water. During baseline data collection self-injury occurred on average 17 times per day at school and 10 times per day home.

Toby experiences problems with sleep. It typically takes his mother or father 2–3 hours every night to have Toby stay in his bedroom, until he falls asleep.

School: Toby is in Mrs. Ryan’s first grade classroom. Mrs. Ryan’s classroom is a self-contained special education class. In the class, there are eight students and two paraprofessionals. Toby has behavior goals within his Individual Educational Plan (IEP) to reduce aggression and self-injury. His IEP team felt Toby needs a behavior intervention plan to address these goals in order to support Toby in transitioning to a less restrictive educational setting. The IEP team feels Toby’s aggression and self-injury are the most significant barriers to Toby transitioning to a level restrictive educational setting.

Home: Mr. and Mrs. M., Toby’s parents, are invested in addressing Toby’s educational and behavioral needs. Mr. and Mrs. M. are both working professionals with busy work schedules. Toby has an older brother, Miles, who is 10 years old. All three family members have received injuries from Toby’s aggression. Toby has also injured in himself both through his aggression and self-injury. They would like to see Toby’s aggression and self-injury decrease and help with Toby’s sleep problems.

Functional Behavior Assessment
The results of the functional behavior assessment indicate Toby’s aggression and self-injury serve multiple functions. Toby’s aggression and self-injury are hypothesized to serve the purposes of escape from demands and to gain access to adult attention.

The results of the functional behavior assessment indicate Toby’s sleep problem serves a singular function, access to adult attention.

Consider the home/community and school environments. Construct interventions for target behaviors exhibited by Toby that would impact his functionality in the home/community and school environments.

Write a behavior intervention plans for Toby for either the home or school setting incorporating the following:

● Provide operational definitions of target behaviors.
● Incorporate results of the functional assessment.
● Include both short and long-term behavior goals.
● Provide the specific steps to your interventions, written in language that the parents and educational professionals can easily understand.
● Discuss how you will collect data and how you will use that data to determine when to adjust your interventions based upon lack of progress or any unintended behavior change.
● Discuss your hypothesized outcome, especially how you programmed for maintenance and generalization of behavior, for each intervention, using scholarly resources to back up your prediction.

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Behavior Intervention Plan: Case Study Toby

This report presents a concerted attempt to devise a behavior intervention plan for a client named Toby, a 6 years old boy diagnosed with the Autism Spectrum Disorder not mentioning intellectual disability. The foundation of the plan is the Applied Behavioral Analysis principles and theories. After providing the operational definition of the target behaviors, the intervention plan will lay out both the short and long-term goals founded on the outcomes of the functional assessment. Consequently, the plan will provide a systematic process for the various interventions to address the target behaviors. Also part of the plan is a method for collecting data to determine the way in which the program manager will determine when to adjust the selected intervention plans. The other essential elements of the plan include risk management, the targeted outcomes, and the way to maintain and generalize behavior for each intervention.

Operational definitions of target behaviors
The three target behaviors include aggressive behavior, self-injurious tendencies, and lack of sleep. For this behavior intervention plan, operationalizing the three behaviors is pertinent. Hence, aggressive behavior refers to the persistent tendency of exposing others, whether young, peers, or older people, to harm or injuries, which might come in diverse forms including hitting, pinching, slapping, scratching, pulling, and grabbing. Self-injurious behavior, on its part, represents a frequent tendency in which a person conducts himself or herself in a manner that poses physical injury to their own bodies. The physical injury takes place in the form of severely biting oneself, for example on the lips or the skin, hitting the head against a hard object such as a wall, and putting the hands inside boiling waters, among other tendencies. Problem with sleep represents the tendency of a person to stay awake for a prolonged period at night hence forcing others to keep up with the affected person, albeit involuntarily.

The results of the functional assessment
Functional assessment in Applied Behavioral Analysis refers to a tool that helps educators to gain a better understanding of the role played by certain behaviors exhibited by a person or a group of people (O'Neill et al., 2015). Hence, the functional assessment of Toby focused on revealing the real motivation for the boy’s exhibition of the three target behaviors. Thus, the assessment showed that the real intention of the aggressive, as well as the self-injurious behaviors demonstrated by the client, was to help the boy escape from school-based demands. Besides, these two behaviors,...

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