General writing advice:
● Be sure to include a clear introduction, explaining to your reader what you will be doing in your paper.
● Clearly explain all background material necessary to fully addressing your chosen topic.
● Be sure to write in a way that would be clear to an intelligent person who has no philosophical background. (This will help you know whether you have explained all of the needed background.)
● Do NOT merely state your view. Justify it.
● When writing the critical portion of your paper, imagine that you are trying to persuade someone who disagrees with you. The test is: Given what you’ve said, should they lose some confidence in their opposing view? (This test will help you know whether you have merely stated your view or have actually given a justification in favor of it.)
● Make your prose reader-friendly. The material should be clearly organized and include transition sentences.
● Include page numbers.
● Include your name and the day and time of your section on the BACK of the last page of your paper.
● You must upload an electronic copy to SafeAssign on Blackboard to receive credit for your paper.
● Clearly communicating complicated ideas to others is an incredibly important, general job skill. Treat this as an opportunity to practice and improve!
● Carefully explain Gettier’s case involving Smith the job candidate and what he thinks that example shows. Then give the best reply to Gettier you can think of in defense of the hypothesis that Knowledge= Justification+Truth+Belief.
This material may consist of step-by-step explanations on how to solve a problem or examples of proper writing, including the use of citations, references, bibliographies, and formatting. This material is made available for the sole purpose of studying and learning - misuse is strictly forbidden.Edmund Gettier’s Is Justified True Belief Knowledge? (1963) is, if nothing else, a lesson in efficient brevity. It is so much more because, in those mere two-and-a-half pages, Gettier deploys a stunningly efficient argument in challenge of the tenet that knowledge is justified true belief. In this paper, I attempt to counter Gettier’s challenge, and, perhaps more importantly, thereby show how, regardless of whether or not his argument ‘wins’, it is stunning in its efficacy in laying bare the pivotal role of intuitive judgments in the project of giving an account of knowledge.
The structure of my paper follows Gettier’s lead in that it is quite straightforward: I begin by sketching the ‘standard’ account of knowledge as justified true belief. I then describe the strategy of Gettier’s challenge, first in theoretical terms, and then in terms of the story of Smith, Job Candidate. My attempt to counter will target Gettier’s two assumptions, and, perhaps more importantly, I will discuss the essential extent to which intuitive judgments of pivotal notions—such as knowing—underpin and suffuse every part of this debate.
Knowledge ≡ Justified True Belief
The ‘standard’ account of knowledge, the account Gettier takes to be standard and has as his target, is, on the face of it, quite simple, perhaps even elegant. It is important and helpful to (try to) be clear on what the standard model is about: what exactly is it for someone to know something? When we say, “John knows his dog Spot is in the yard”, what exactly are we saying? What exactly does ‘knows’ stand for?
To start, the standard account—and perhaps any account of knowledge—assumes that knowledge is a type of belief, but a ‘higher’, more rarefied sort. When John knows that Spot is in the yard, it of course ‘starts’ with John believing that Spot is in the yard – but knowing is more. So what...