 # Conservation of Momentum (990 words)

## Transcribed Text

CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM LAB Purpose: To explore conservation of momentum in a lab setting Introduction to the variables and equations: Basic equation for momentum of a single object: Subscripts o and f can be included in the equation to represent initial (before collision) and final (after collision) values. Subscripts 1 and 2 can be included to represent mass 1 and mass 2. Specific equations for initial and final momentum of mass 1 and mass 2: Initial momentum for mass 1: p1o = m1v1o Initial momentum for mass 2: p2o = m2v2o Final momentum for mass 1: p1f = m1v1f Final momentum for mass 2: p2f = m2v2f Initial momentum total and final momentum total can also be calculated by taking the sum of the momentum values for each cart. Total momentum equations: Initial momentum total = m 1v1o + m2v2o Final momentum total = m1v1f + m2v2f Conservation of momentum occurs when the initial momentum total equals the final momentum total. Conservation of momentum equation: Procedure: 1. Determine a hypothesis for the given collisions by answering the following question: Which collisions will experience conservation of momentum? 2. Use the following simulation, Collision Lab, to complete this lab. Note: The simulation will open in a new window and requires Java to run. 1. In the simulation, ensure that you are using the “Introduction” tab and for the table, select “More Data” so that you can see the velocity of each mass. Also, move the slider for “Sim Speed” so that it is all the way to the left. This makes the simulation slow enough to see what happens. For the table on the right, you can choose to have “Velocity Vectors” and “Show Values” boxes checked if you please. 2. You will use the table at the bottom of the simulation to input values of mass and initial velocity for the two masses. For tables 1 through 6, you will record the velocity directly after the masses collide. This will be the final velocity for each mass. Make sure that the two masses are at least 2 m apart by changing their position values. Remember to hit the reset button to start the next collision. 3. In Collision 1 and Collision 2, ensure “Elasticity” is 100% by moving the slider all the way to the right. This signifies an "Elastic" collision. Watch the simulation closely and make note of what an elastic collisions looks like. 4. In Collision 3 and Collision 4, change “Elasticity” to 0% by moving the slider all the way to the left. This signifies an "Inelastic" collision. Again, watch the simulations closely and make note of what an inelastic collision looks like. 5. Input Values Elastic Collision between equal mass: Collision 1 Mass (kg) Initial Velocity (m/s) Final Velocity (m/s) Momentum Initial (kg*m/s) Momentum Final (kg*m/s) Mass 1 2.0 + 50.0 Mass 2 2.0 - 50.0 Elastic Collision between unequal mass: Collision 2 Mass (kg) Initial Velocity (m/s) Final Velocity (m/s) Momentum Initial (kg*m/s) Momentum Final (kg*m/s) Mass 1 1.0 + 50.0 Mass 2 2.0 - 50.0 Inelastic Collision between equal mass: Collision 3 Mass (kg) Initial Velocity (m/s) Final Velocity (m/s) Momentum Initial (kg*m/s) Momentum Final (kg*m/s) Mass 1 2.0 + 50.0 Mass 2 2.0 - 50.0 Inelastic Collision between unequal mass: Collision 4 Mass (kg) Initial Velocity (m/s) Final Velocity (m/s) Momentum Initial (kg*m/s) Momentum Final (kg*m/s) Mass 1 1.0 + 50.0 Mass 2 2.0 - 50.0 Your own Elastic Collision: Collision 5 Mass (kg) Initial Velocity (m/s) Final Velocity (m/s) Momentum Initial (kg*m/s) Momentum Final (kg*m/s) Mass 1 Mass 2 Your own Inelastic Collision: Collision 6 Mass (kg) Initial Velocity (m/s) Final Velocity (m/s) Momentum Initial (kg*m/s) Momentum Final (kg*m/s) Mass 1 Mass 2 Calculations: Collision Total Momentum Initial (kg*m/s) Total Momentum Final (kg*m/s) Collision 1 Collision 2 Collision 3 Collision 4 Collision 5 Collision 6 Questions and Conclusion: 1. Based on your observations of the six collisions, describe the physical difference between elastic and inelastic collisions. 2. How are you able to determine if conservation of momentum occurs in each collision? 3. Write a complete conclusion for this lab.

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