Lab Uniformly Accelerated Motion Acceleration defined as the rate ...

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Lab Uniformly Accelerated Motion Acceleration defined as the rate of change of the velocity and the physical quantity quantifying how the motion of object changes. The average acceleration can expressed as V-Y aagg -4t-4-1 Uniformly accelerated motion of ar objectis defined as a motion where the acceleration constant Since the acceleration does not change, the instantaneous acceleration, of the object must be equal the average acceleration, i.e. the lecture class, we learned that the velocity and displacement of motion with constant acceleration in 1-D given by =Votat and where and are the initial position and velocity of the object, respectively ai: the acceleration and is the time of travel. In thislab, you will investigate uniformly accelerated motions two different ways, 1) objects in free fall and, 2)the motion an object down an inclined surface As a result, you will find the value the acceleration g. due1 gravity on Earth from two different methods and you can compare Part I Objects ir Free-Fall Apparatus Three objects that are safe to drop Meter stick (or tape measure long ruler etc) Post- (to anything that can make marks the wall and be cleaned up) Stopwatch (Your cell phone should have one.) For sufficiently dense objects falling over short distances, we can assume the effects of drag are small. Thus the motion object free near the Earth's surface uniformly accelerated motion because, near the surface the Earth, the acceleration due gravity constant regardless 'an object's mass. Yo . Figure shows an object dropped from rest iie. initial height y above ground level measured from the bottom of the object. Consider one-dimension [g coordinate system set up that the origin ground level (i.e. =0) and the positive -direction upward, the acceleration the object would a = Applying equation motion above and remember Vo=0, the position the object time tisgiven by y=0 ground level y=y-2at² Figure Soi we measure the time for the object to reach the ground, we can find the value by g : 2yo/t Procedures 1. Find three objects of different materials that are safe to drop. For example, you may use ping pong ball, bouncy ball, golf ball tennis ball, play dough, coins, Lego block, or rubber eraser, etc (Use common sense! will not responsible anything breaks. Rank them sheavy, medium and light by mass. Enter the information Tables 1-3 (If you have a suitable scale at home to use. it is even better record the precise masses of the objects.) 2 Stand by the side wall and precisely measure height of : meters from the floor i.e set yo 2m Use a Post- anything that you can clean up afterward to mark the height on the wall. 3. Position the bottom (Why? Think! of the heavy object at the 2-meter mark by one hand and hold the stopwatch on the other hand Drop and time the free fall of the object from the 2-meter mark five times. Enter the falling time for each drop the appropriate column the Data Tables. Repeat the same measurements and record the results for the other two objects. Itis important that the person who drops the object be the same person who does the tirning (Why?) You should Iso practice few times get consistent results before you start the actual measurements You may also want check the reaction time fyour fingers. 4. For each object, calculate the free fall acceleration from each time measurement and find the average value Find also the percent errors your experimental results (Use g 9.80m/s² as the accepted value for this calculation.) Enter your results the Data Tables. 5. Aspartot Results section of your report make sure include the threetables, one for each object and compare the three calculated experimental accelerations due gravity the accepted value. Include percent errors these tables. Show your work Note any trends part of the Discussion section make sure discuss all detectable systernati errors, any, and try suggest ways improve. Questions 1. Objects different masses were used to investigate whether the acceleration due to gravity depends on the falling object. Should heavier object faster than lighter one? (Read the textbook fyou not sure.) do your experimental results show? 2 What probably the greatest source of error in this experimental procedure? Is randorn error or error? Part II: Uniformly Accelerated Motion on the Air Track 1 meter track with built- scale An track Stopwatch the air track to form Vernier measure the height An object moving ona (near) indined plane has acceleration due to gravity along the length of the plane Since this occurs the planet's we can say that this acceleration is a portion of the acceleration and that We shall use an inclined air track The actual air track equipment shownir Figure It is basically smooth metal track with holes drilled on it and is connected to an air supply. The air car s a slider that on the track. When the air supply strong current out (partially) raises So the car will very low friction surface the hockey that you play The setup of Air track Air Car Figure showing equipment the dimension measure the that the given distance down the incline from rest for -air car air track- To air Figure 3 Figure 4 Based on the geometry shownir Figure 4 and with some trigonometric function calculations, itis easy to see that the component the free fall acceleration along the direction of the slopei Soi friction negligible, the constant acceleration of the the car would be 1= sin6 and the time required travel a distance from resti given the equation: if the motion applied the car graph the displacement x(t) vs. time we would obtain parabolic curve. the other hand were graph x(t) time², the graph should straight line and from the slope the line we able determine the acceleration due gravity. You will verify the equation above and determine the value of ginthis experiment Procedures 1. Measure one (or more) of the blocks with vernier caliper and place (them) under the back suppor of the track These measurements should be done five times at different positions consure reasonable average 2. Now measure the distance between the supports of the air track along its length These measurement should be done five times ensure reasonable average 3. urements frompart the opposite side of a right triangle and part 2isthe hypotenuse of the triangle. The average values these two measurements then, allow you to determine the sin@ term the equation 4. Now, turn on the air source for the air track. NEVER set the air car on the track without the air source running! Have one member of the group releases from the top ofthe indine and simultaneously starts the stopwatch Stop the watch when the car has travel led 0.20m down the indine Repeat the time measu urements for tleast five times and record the results the Data Table. 5. Repeat step for distances of: 0.30, 0.50, 0.60, 0.75, 0.85, 1.00, and 1.25 meters At each distance, remembert have each lab member do measurement Calculations 1. Calculate the average height and the average hypotenuse length 4 the incline Enter your results the Data Table. 2. Calculate sin@by using the values from part 3. For each length find the average time travel Then calculate the square of the average time Enter all the resultsin the Data Table. 4. Plot the distance travelled (x) vs The graph should exhibit reasonable linear relationship Fit the data points with straight line and find the slope ofthe fitted line (You should force the intercept to zero the fitting because the origin (O, 0) i an exact point fthe graph.) 5. From the slope of your graph and the value of sin0 determine your experimental value of g 6. Find the percent error between your value of and the accepted value. How consistent were your data predicting is value? Questions 1. Should have taken into account the reaction time of each person doing the time measurements? Why or why not? 2 Which meas urements do you believe gave us more accurate results, those at the shorter distances or those the longer distances? 3. Should we somehow account for the mass the air car our overall analysis? Why or why not? 4. Compare the experimental gir this part to the ones i Part I Which method gives more accurate results? Why?

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