Question

TASK : PHYSICS OF PHOTOVOLTAIC CELL
Your task is to report on the physics and technology involved in the working of photovoltaic cells, commonly known as solar cells. A solar cell is a device that can convert light into electrical energy. Solar cells are used to create solar modules and solar panels, they generate electrical energy and are a renewable source of energy.
Getting started There are many videos on the Internet explaining how solar cells work. You may watch them and make notes on the physics theory involved in solar cell technology. You may also use any source to research the physics principles involved in developing solar cell technology.
You will be assessed on the range and depth of your understanding of how physics principles apply to photovoltaic cell technology context. Some of the points you may consider are:
• the physics theory behind the development of photovoltaic cells.
• how photovoltaic cells are constructed using the idea of semiconductors
• selection of materials for the construction of photovoltaic cells.
• techniques employed to improve efficiency of photovoltaic cells.
• sample calculations which demonstrate the physics principles wherever appropriate.

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A solar cell is a device that transforms the solar power that is incident on its surface into electric power available for use in an external electric circuit that contains a load. The primary principle that makes a solar cell working is the internal photoelectric effect that is similar to the external photoelectric effect for which Einstein has got his Nobel Prize. Both these effects take place when a light photon strikes an electron from a solid material atom (be it a metal or semiconductor). If the energy of the incoming photon is big enough the electron will be expulsed from the atom leaving behind an empty place (named a hole if the material is a semiconductor). If the electron is expulsed from the surface of the material (when light strikes an atom from the surface) the effect is called external, if the photon travels a certain distance into the material and the electron is expulsed from the bulk of the material the effect is called internal photoelectric effect...

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