1. Of all the developments that take place during the second decade of life, the only one that is truly inevitable is:
a. Physical maturation
b. An identity crisis
c. Rebellion against one's parents
d. The first experience of romantic love

2. According to the text, puberty involves all of the following, except:
a. Development of the primary sex characteristics
b. Changes in distribution of fat and muscle in the body
c. Development of secondary sex characteristics
d. Increases in intellectual functioning

3. The belief of adolescent girls that being slim will increase their popularity isc
a. A myth
b. A misperception by adolescents
c. Based in reality
d. A concern for only a minority of adolescent girls

4. Which one of the following statements about puberty's impact on family relationships is true?
a. Puberty appears to increase distance between parents and children.
b. Other species do not experience distance during the pubertal transition.
c. Being an early maturing adolescent has more impact on family tension than being a late maturing adolescent.
d. Puberty does not interfere with family relations.

5. Making "educated guesses" about problems would be considered which type of reasoning?
a. Inductive reasoning
b. Deductive reasoning
c. Argumentative reasoning
d. Cognitive Reasoning

6. Dave knows that kids who drink and drive sometimes get killed, but he believes that he is somehow immune to having such a terrible thing happen to him. Dave's belief is an example of:
a. The imaginary audience
b. A personal fable
C. Social cognition
d. Metacognition

7. While studying for her biology exam, Jennifer watches her favorite show on TV. This is an example of:
a. Selective attention
b. Divided attention
c. Short-term memory
d. Long-term memory

8. While children tend to use          when asked to describe others, adolescents are more likely to describe people in terms of             .
a. Attitudinal descriptors; interests and personality characteristics
b. Concrete descriptors; global descriptors
c. Personality descriptors; global and concrete descriptors
d. Global and concrete descriptors; interests and personality characteristics

9. Kaji, a 16-year-old male, has gone through the rite of passage and is now considered a warrior by his tribesmen. This change in Kaji's role and status may be referred to as:
a. Extrusion
b. Scarification
c. Social redefinition
d. Inventionist

10. Which of the following did not contribute to the redefinition of the term "youth"?
a. Increased materialism among college students
b. A growing college population
c. A rise in student activism
d. Changes in attitudes and values among college students

11. Dr. Goodrich believes that the passage into adulthood is a sudden change in which adult roles and statuses are abruptly assumed. This view is most closely associated with the:
a. Continuous transition
b. Discontinuous transition
c. Longitudinal perspective
d. Abstemious approach

12. Jim and Stacey are the parents of two preteen girls. Throughout the girls' childhood, the family has enjoyed fairly harmonious relationships. The likelihood that they will experience serious problems as the girls go through adolescence is:
a. Highly likely
b. Average
c. Not likely
d. Not easily predicted

13. Which of the following is not one of the three major factors that influence the transformation in family relationships that takes places during early adolescence?
a. Puberty
b. Changes in the balance of power
c. Gender of the adolescent
d. Violations of expectations

14. Tammy's father has absolute standards and expects Tammy to conform to them without exception. If she disobeys he generally punishes her, and sees no reason why he should explain his rules to Tammy. Instead, his response is, "I'm the father and I love you. I know what's best for you." Her father is best described as having what kind of parenting style?
a. Authoritative
b. Authoritarian
c. Indulgent
d. Indifferent

15. What factors would explain the fact that Dorothy and Rose, sisters who are only one year apart in age, have different memories of their family life as they were growing up?
a. Shared environment
b. Non-shared environment
c. Genetic factors
d. Differentiated environment

16. Research about contemporary adolescents is clear that these adolescents than adolescents in previous times.
a. Are more susceptible to the influences of their peers
b. Are at higher risk for problem behaviours because of peer influence
c. Spend more time in peer groups
d. Report more positive experiences from their involvement in peer groups

17. Mitch organizes a party for about 20 of his classmates, who are all interested in theatre, and they all watch a tape of the musical The Phantom of the Opera. This group of teenagers, who don't always hang out together, but share common interests, would most appropriately be labelled a:
a. Gang
b. Reference group
c. Crowd
d. Clique

18. A research technique in which the researcher "infiltrates" a group of individuals in order to study their behaviour and relationships is called:
a. Naturalistic observation
b. A longitudinal approach
c. A demographic approach
d. Participant observation

19. Felicia has a problematic relationship with her parents. All of the following negative effects are likely to occur for Felicia, except:
a. Development of an antisocial disposition
b. Active school involvement
C. School failure
d. Rejection by classmates

20. Mr. Edwards is the principal at a public school and has just read a research study that discussed ways to maximize student's success. The main message of the research study was that what takes place within a school is probably more important than the nature of its funding and oversight. Based on what you learned from the textbook, what do you think the researchers argued that schools should focus on?
a. The ways in which schools train, certify, place, and compensate teachers
b. Successfully tracking students
c. Trying to become a private school
d. Allowing students to choose more of their coursework

21. Jacquelynne Eccles describes all of the following changes in school environment when moving from elementary school to middle school or junior high school, except that:
a. Middle and junior high schools are larger and more impersonal.
b. Teachers in middle and junior high schools feel more confident in their teaching abilities.
c. Teachers in middle and junior high schools are less likely to trust their students.
d. Teachers in middle and junior high schools are more likely to believe that students' abilities are not easily modified through instruction.

22. Although Chris is significantly delayed developmentally, he goes to a regular grade school, takes classes in social studies, music, and physical education with the non-handicapped students, and goes to special classes to learn about reading and arithmetic. This situation is an example of:
a. Mainstreaming
b. Functional education
c. Higher-order learning
d. Education compensation

23. Maria sees herself as an only child, as a person who likes art and music, who is shy, and who likes to read. Maria's description fits best with the idea of:
a. Self-conception
b. Self-esteem
c. Self-attribution
d. Self-control

24. Which dimension of the Five-Factor Model measures how organized someone is?
a. Extroversion
b. Agreeableness
c. Neuroticism
d. Conscientiousness

25. Dr. Smith argues that adolescence is such a demanding time that adolescents need several years with as few responsibilities as possible so they can sort out their identities. His argument focuses on the idea of:
a. Individuation
b. Separation
c. Crystallization
d. Psychosocial moratorium

26. Viggo says to his friends, "You know, sometimes my Dad is wrong and I tell him so and I give him my opinion. I didn't use to do that when I was younger- - I used to think that everything he said was right." Viggo is demonstrating:
a. Individuation
b. Deidealization of parents
C. Seeing parents as people
d. Nondependence

27. When Lenny gets frustrated or upset, he turns to his peers rather than his parents for support. As a matter of fact, Lenny relies on his peers more than his parents for most things. Lenny is probably from:
a. A permissive home
b. An authoritarian home
c. An authoritative home
d. An autocratic home

28. Research suggests that adolescents                   are the most likely to be susceptible to peer pressure.
a. From families in which parents are strict and make decisions for their
b. Whose parents encourage autonomy
C. Who have positive regard for their parents
d. From authoritative homes that encourage independent decision making

29. Children's friendships are based on                         , as adolescents' friendships are based on                   .
a. Activities; competition
b. Activities; intimacy
c. Intimacy; competition
d. Competition; activities

30. Sullivan believed a precondition to forming close relationships as an adolescent
a. Being able to take someone else's perspective.
b. Forming intimate friendships during preadolescence.
C. Having secure interpersonal relationships since childhood.
d. Overcoming the frustration and anxiety associated with making friends in

31. Fourteen-year-old Fatimah is most likely to be upset with her best friend if the friend:
a. Criticizes Fatimah's clothes.
b. Spends more time with a new friend she has made.
c. Cannot come shopping with Fatimah because she has to babysit her sister.
d. Disagrees with Fatimah about the boys each girl is dating.

32. Which one of the following is the best indicator of when an adolescent will begin dating?
a. Chronological age
b. Biological development
c. The school/ community norms
d. The age of his or her parents

33. "Sexual socialization" refers to:
a. A person's sexual orientation
b. A person's social skills in sexual relationships
c. The way in which an individual is educated about sexuality
d. The degree to which an individual is comfortable with his or her sexuality

34. Molly and Lawrence were caught kissing in school and were sent to the principal's office. He gave them each after-school detention (in separate rooms) and instructed them that this behaviour was to cease immediately. However, when the principal saw Lawrence and Molly kissing at the mall on Saturday, he ignored their behaviour. This type of attitude toward sexuality is consistent with which type of society?
a. Semirestrictive
b. Permissive
c. Prohibitive
d. Restrictive

35. Tim and Carol are upset because they recently discovered that their 13-year-old daughter has already engaged in sexual intercourse. What other types of problems should they anticipate?
a. Drug and alcohol problems
b. Low interest in academics
C. Tolerance of deviant behaviour
d. All of the above

36. For adolescent girls, which one of the following is the most important factor in determining the onset of sexual intercourse?
a. Increased levels of androgens
b. Availability of birth control
c. The attitudes of friends toward sexual activity
d. Receiving sex education in school

37. Fourteen-year-old Sarah began "acting out" behaviours that her teacher had never observed in her before, such as a decline in self-esteem, sexual promiscuity, and risky behaviour. Sarah's teacher suspects that Sarah is:
a. Pregnant
b. Fighting with her boyfriend
c. A victim of sexual abuse
d. Questioning her sexual orientation

38. According to the textbook, how is puberty connected to achievement?
a. To the extent that puberty changes what's important for maintaining status in the peer group, it may lead adolescents to worry about whether trying too hard to do well will make them less attractive to their classmates.
b. Puberty intensifies differences between males and females, and one impact of this is to make individuals think about what is "appropriate" achievement-related behaviour for each of the sexes.
c. Biological (hormonal) changes of puberty are directly related to achievement and motivation in high school.
d. Both (a) and (b) are correct.

39. Motivation based on the pleasure one will experience from mastering a task is called:
a. Extrinsic motivation
b. Intrinsic motivation
c. Intuitive motivation
d. Instinctive motivation

40. Current research addressing sex differences in achievement suggests that:
a. Girls still lag far behind boys on science and math.
b. When differences in math and science are found today, they are very slight.
c. Girls have closed the math/science gap and have now become better in these subjects than boys.
d. There were so many methodological flaws in the earlier research that the differences in boys' and girls' math and science abilities were unduly exaggerated.

41. Research on the interaction of the influence of parents and peers suggests all of the following, except:
a. Family environment affects adolescents' choice of friends.
b. Friends who value school can positively affect adolescents' school achievement even if the adolescent does not come from an authoritative home.
C. Peers and parents have a stronger influence on adolescents' school achievement in countries in which schools serve heterogeneous groups of students.
d. Peers have more influence on adolescents than families in countries where students are placed on separate educational tracks.

42. Peter's parents are worried that their son is drinking too much. They think his alcohol use might turn into a long-term problem. Which theory best illustrates the nature of adolescent drug use?
a. Many problems experienced by adolescents are relatively transitory in nature.
b. Adolescent alcohol use is the first sign of long-term problems with drugs.
c. Adolescent alcohol use is a clear indication of permissive parenting techniques.
d. None of the above are true.

43. Which one of the following is considered an "internalizing disorder"?
a. Drug abuse
b. Anxiety
c. Truancy
d. Delinquency

44. Which one of the following is not a risk factor for developing substance abuse problems?
a. Having excessively permissive parents.
b. Having easy access to drugs.
c. Having friends who use and tolerate the use of drugs.
d. Being involved in a sexual relationship.

45. Some people who are delinquent as adolescents grow up to be law-abiding adults. What type of pattern is this?
a. Transitory delinquency
b. Negative affectivity
c. Diathesis-stress model
d. Adolescent limited offender

1. You join your friends for coffee and notice they are arguing about whether the Piagetian or the information-processing perspective offers a better explanation of cognitive development. They ask for your opinion, and you tell them that each is useful but each has limitations. You suggest a third approach that integrates the two perspectives. What do you tell your friends?
2. Adam has lived in chronic poverty his entire life. How will this life experience lead to a heightened risk of psychological difficulties and problem behaviour? What can parents do to mitigate the effects of poverty?
3. Tammy uses drugs and alcohol and hangs out with other people who use these substances. Stephanie engages in antisocial and delinquent behaviours and hangs out with peers who also engage in delinquency. Cory has many depressive symptoms and has friends who also act depressed. Discuss the process of selection and socialization in regard to Tammy, Stephanie, and Cory.
4. When it comes to school size, is bigger better? Discuss what you know about research on school size and extracurricular activity participation among high school students.
5. Below is a statement that a First Nations adolescent could make about his or her life. Analyze it to show what you know about identity development.
Hint: What would James Marcia's theory say?)
"I think I learned that I couldn't be myself at that school. I had to be like the other students to be happy there; I had to be rich and snobby. Because of my family's poverty and our tribal gatherings, I couldn't be like them. Not really anyway. I felt I had to put on airs, or have a dramatic life that people would be interested in; otherwise I was a lonely person. I needed to find a niche somehow, somewhere. So for about two years, somewhere between eighth and ninth grade, I became a liar.
"After exploring a few different career paths during college, I feel I have developed a new appreciation for who I am. I have been an active member of the Native American Society and have lived at the Society house whenever possible. Graduation is finally in sight I plan to 80 on to graduate school for Indian education. I want to work in curriculum and administration, but I will probably teach first so that I can get some practical experience. I find that because of my experiences away from home I've gotten a lot of perspective that has, in the end, allowed me to appreciate my heritage."
6. Now that Sarah is an adolescent, she has changed the way in which she thinks
about religion, morals, and politics. Specifically, she disagrees with her parents and believes that protesting against pollution is acceptable because protecting the environment is more important than living in accord with the law. She
knows that breaking the law is wrong, but she believes that the enforcement of certain laws should depend on the context in which the law is being evaluated. She believes that some laws are outdated and should be re-examined and perhaps amended. Sarah's parents think she is just trying to rebel against them. How can you explain Sarah's change in political ideology, based on cognitive research in adolescence?
7. Tamara, a late adolescent, often experiences intense feelings of anxiety. How would Sullivan explain this? (Hint: think about the developmental progression of these feelings). How does Sullivan's theory build on Erikson's theory?
8. Ricky is 16 years old, yet he is just a freshman in high school because he was held back a grade in elementary school. Recently, Ricky has decided to drop out of school. Discuss the likely origins of his decision and the general factors that lead students to drop out, and give your thoughts on what may be done to keep students like Ricky in school.

Define in your own words. No references. Include an example where appropriate. Each definition is worth 3 marks.

1. Adrenarche
2. Triarchic theory
3. Discontinuous transition
4. Student Engagement
5. Conventional reasoning

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