1. What are the concerns for treating children as adults in the criminal justice system? What are some of the short term and long-term consequences for juveniles treated as adults? How will the new legislation impact youth involved in the criminal justice system in New York?

2. What are some challenges immigrant children or children of immigrants have in the education system? What are some of the effects of these challenges? What can be done to ensure a supportive and successful learning environment?

3. How does school policing affect the learning environment? What implications does this have for children? Do you support school safety officers in school? Why or why not?

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1. One of the biggest concerns for treating children as adults in the criminal justice system is their competency to stand trial. According to Mayzer at al. (2009) juvenile competency to stand trial is a complex issue which depends on the mental status, medical conditions, and juvenile’s ability to understand trial procedures and charges. Studies suggest that false confessions occur more often at younger ages due to suggestive questioning, deception techniques, interrogative pressure and potential short-term rewards. Susceptibility to fall under the influence of suggestive interrogation pressure can be linked to cognitive development levels which depend on age and the levels of sex hormones in the body. Research confirms that prefrontal cortex is one of the brain arias that mature the last. This aria of the brain is responsible for working memory, attention, decision-making, planning and impulse control. Brain development continues during adolescence and causes higher activities in the limbic system which affects emotional response. Due to the limbic system activities juveniles are unable to modulate their responses when exposed to fearful facial expressions which are commonly attributed to incarceration and legal proceedings (Mayzer, Bradley, Rusinko, & Ertelt, 2009)....

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