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1. Most children in early childhood are in Piaget's concrete operational stage. The ability to complete and understand Piaget's conservation tasks signifies the move from pre operational to concrete operational. Describe Piaget's conservation tasks. Why do pre-operational children have difficulty with the tasks? What is the source of confusion?
2. Friendships (peers) and play strongly impact social and emotional development in early childhood. Explain the roles of each and how each influences the emerging concept of self in the preschool years. Include "types of play".
3. During middle childhood children with special needs require additional consideration in the school setting. Discuss special needs including children with Attention Deficient/Hyperactivity Disorder, autism, and physical handicaps, vision issues, etc. Address how school staffs can meet their needs.
4. There are a number of views on cognitive development in middle childhood. Describe and compare the following approaches: Piagetian, Information Processing and Vygotsky.
5. There are many ways of looking at intelligence. Explain how theorists Howard Gardner and Robert Sternberg conceptualize intelligence. Include descriptions of the components of each theorist's views
6. Describe stages of friendship in middle childhood. Also discuss the impact of gender and race as they affect personal relationships.
7. Stress negatively impacts both the physical and psychological well-being of adolescents. Discuss how stress, coping, brain development, risky behaviors, and use of drugs such as marijuana and alcohol impact physical and psychological health.
8. Describe Kohlberg's stages of moral development and Gilligan's views on moral development. Explain how their views differ.
9. Discuss the roles or impact of imaginary audience, personal fable, and the timing of puberty in terms of impact on self-concept and social interactions in adolescence.
10. Define Marcia's four patterns of identity development. Based on what you know about parenting styles and adolescent development, suggest what kinds of parental behavior might be associated with each of Marcia's patterns of identity. Be sure to support your answer by explaining why a certain parenting style promotes a particular identity.

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Q. 1
Piaget’s most prominent task is the conservation of liquid. The task demonstrated that a child that cannot conserve would perceive that quantity changes depending on the size of a glass or container. Contrastingly, a conserving person knows that the volume of liquid remains the same regardless of the appearance (Houdé et al., 2011). Conservation of number was another task undertaken by Piaget. The philosopher concluded that a child that can conserve knows that the number of marbles in a longer line is the same when compared to marbles appearing in two parallel lines of the same length. However, if a child thinks that there are more marbles in the longer line, he or she cannot conserve.
The third conservation task tested for solid quantity and involved two lumps of clay. Based on the experiment, Piaget concluded that a child that can conserve has and understanding that different lump shapes are made of the same amount of clay (Houdé et al., 2011). However, a non-conserving child will identify that oblong lump shapes usually have more clay. The ultimate task was a weight conservation procedure, and it involved two lumps of clay and balance. Piaget found out that a conserving child, unlike the non-conserving one, knows that shape usually does not have an effect on the weight of a lump (Houdé et al., 2011).
The chief reason for pre-operational children having difficulties with conservation tasks is that they do not have a logical thinking capacity. According to Houdé et al. (2011), Piaget’s tests were unfamiliar to the children, a thing that might have affected their responses giving rise to confusion. The idea that the experiments were out of context might have also contributed towards the confusion.
Q. 2
According to Yawkey and Johnson (2013), friendship usually ensures that one is accepted by his or her peers in the first three years of life. In turn, this helps to build and strengthen the child’s emotional and social skills. It has been established that peer rejection usually exacerbates by peer rejection and this might trigger aggressive behavior. Children play also has a positive correlation between a child’s social and emotional development. However, it is of central importance to understanding the various types of play. According to Scarlett (2005), Piaget categorized children play practice...

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