Question

Social Psychology
Multiple-Choice Questions
NOTE: For each multiple-choice question choose one answer that best answers the question. You must also provide an explanation for why you chose that answer.

1. A department store wants to examine whether changing the room temperature to make it hotter as opposed to cooler will cause customers to buy more air conditioners. The best method for answering this question would be
a. experimental
b. correlational
c. naturalistic observation
d. archival analysis

2. Which of the following correlations is BOTH weaker AND in the direction you would expect between how physically fit a person is and how many hours each day they spend watching TV?
a. + .20
b. - .38
c. + .34
d. - .45

3. A study measured how much time fathers spent with their children and then the researchers measured how much the fathers abused their children. The results showed that the more time fathers spent with their children, the less they abused their children. Which of the following is the most valid interpretation of this finding based on the results obtained?
a. Fathers who spend a lot of time with their children are more likely to develop loving relationships, reducing the likelihood that they will abuse their children
b. Many fathers who abuse their children feel guilty and thus avoid spending time with their children
c. There is some third variable, such as having an anti-social personality, that increases the likelihood that fathers will abuse their children and that they will spend little time with them
d. Not enough information is available to answer the question.

4. A researcher investigates the relationship between self-esteem and choice of a partner in a getting-acquainted situation. To do this, she has students take a personality test and then gives them feedback indicating the test found them to be “mature, insightful, and socially skilled” or “immature, inflexible, and overly critical.” After receiving this feedback, students choose a partner to interact with by looking at several opposite-sex photos of people. The researcher then records whether the participant chose an attractive or unattractive partner from the group of photos. What is the IV in this experiment?
a. Type of partner chosen
b. The personality test
c. The feedback
d. The interaction

5. People in some cultures assume that eating a part of some animal will give you the same attributes that animal has. Therefore, some people will eat the heart of a lion, rather than the heart of a rabbit or some other animal, to gain courage. Their choice of which animal to eat is based on
A. the representativeness heuristic
B. the availability heuristic
C. the anchoring and adjustment heuristic
D. All of the above
E. None of the above

6. Lola visits Trish in Weston, CT. At some point, Lola asks Trish whether there is a lot of crime in Weston. Although crime rarely occurs there, Trish recalls a recent news story about a Weston drug store robbery. On the basis of this memory, she then tells Lola that there is a lot of crime in Weston. This scenario illustrates reliance on the ____________ heuristic.
A. Representativeness
B. Availability
C. Recollection
D. Anchoring
   
7. You are taking a university course with a combined graduate and undergraduate enrollment. You know that there are many more undergraduates than graduate students enrolled in this course. There is a woman who looks to be about 30 sitting next to you. If you avoid using the representativeness heuristic to guess her student status, you would guess that she is a(n) _____ student because ________.
a. graduate; she’s older
b. undergraduate; you have a bias to expect undergraduates in your courses
c. graduate; she fits your schema for graduate students
d. undergraduate; there are more of them enrolled in the class

8. Sometimes our expectations about the social world are fulfilled simply because we believe them to be true. Which example best illustrates this point?
a. Jaime expected his blind date to be beautiful. After paying for an expensive meal, he convinced himself that she was.
b. Karen expected her blind date to have a good sense of humor, so she cracked a lot of jokes. He laughed along and told some jokes of his own.
c. Janet expected the social psychology exam to be easy, and she earned an “A.”
d. Luke expected his girlfriend to be angry when he arrived two hours late, and she was.
e. Both situations C & D illustrate this point.
f. None of these situations illustrate this point.

9. Assuming that everyone thinks you are a jerk because you forgot to show up at a dinner party with a gift for the host can be considered an example of which of the following?
A. illusory correlation
B. transparency effect
C. spotlight effect
D. hindsight bias
E. None of these

10. After tests have been graded, many students like their professor to post a list of every student's test score next to identification numbers rather than just return each student's test individually. Which of the following ideas would explain why students have this preference?
A. reflected appraisal
B. transparency effect
C. spotlight effect
D. social comparison
E. hindsight bias

11. According to Terror-Management Theory which of the following people is most likely to donate to the Republican Political Party?
a. Alice who is 20 years old, has always supported Republican Politicians, is mad at the current Democratic President in office, and is currently undergoing a divorce
b. Ben, who has always been Republican and who was recently diagnosed with cancer
c. Ryan, who agrees completely with the Republican Party's ideas, thinks American Society is “going down the toilet,” and is filing for bankruptcy
d. Kim who thinks that Democrats have too much power in Congress right now and just lost her job
e. Jason who is very upset at the Democrats for raising his taxes and just bought his first home
f. The theory predicts all of these people would be equally likely to donate to the Republican Party

Short-Answer Questions
1) You are interested in answering the following question: Does being worried about the future make people less likely to impulsively spend money? Think up a simple experiment that tests this idea and answer the following questions.
What is the I.V. in your experiment?
What is the D.V. in your experiment?
Please describe what your experiment would be. Make sure you include enough detail so that I could replicate your experiment if I wanted to. Also be sure to include ALL the components necessary for a proper experiment, as we discussed in class, when describing your experiment.

2) Consider the following theory: Women in the U.S. are more concerned about global warming than men in the U.S. are. Assuming this theory is true; provide 3 specific and testable hypotheses implied by this theory.
NOTE: Your hypotheses may NOT involve directly asking women or men anything (i.e., giving them a survey, interviewing them, etc.)
Do more women than men purchase energy saving appliances?
Do more women drivers than men drivers maintain vehicle emission inspect?
Do more women or men recycle plastic containers on a daily basis?

3) After the first week of class most students have formed their impression of me (Dr. Shelton) and believe I am a very outgoing person who finds it easy to meet new people and talk with them. Actually, if I were to take a personality test, it would indicate I’m a rather shy person who finds it somewhat difficult to talk with people I’m meeting for the first time. Assuming the test is accurate and I really am a shy person (which I am), use what you have learned so far in this class to explain why I am such a different person when you compare students’ impressions of me and the results of the personality test.

4) One night your friend Allen has a dream that he runs into his Math Professor at the grocery store while in the checkout line. The very next day Allen is in the checkout line at the grocery store and, sure enough, runs into his Math Professor. Allen now believes that his dreams can predict the future. Is this situation an example of the hindsight bias or the illusory correlation? Explain why.

5) Suppose the Cleveland Comets and the Baltimore Bombers basketball teams are playing in the championship game. According to the self-serving bias, what reasons might the Cleveland and Baltimore players each give for why Baltimore won the game? List one reason a player from each team might give and be sure to explain how the reasons you list are predicted by the self-serving bias.

6) Jason and Kate are hanging out at the park. Jason is intently studying for a history test he has tomorrow which he is very worried about it. Kate is alert and is watching the people at the park when she notices a man who seems to be having an argument with a tree. The man is dressed nicely with a tie and sport coat, seems to be holding some kind of small rectangular object in his hand, is standing about 4 feet from a tree, is facing the tree, and is talking loudly in the direction of the tree. Kate nudges Jason to look at the man arguing with the tree and asks Jason why the man is doing that.

What type of attribution is Jason likely to provide for the man’s behavior, provide an example of what Jason might say that reflects this type of attribution, and explain why Jason will make that type of attribution.
What type of attribution is Kate likely to provide for the man’s behavior, provide an example of what Kate might say that reflects this type of attribution, and explain why Kate will make that type of attribution.

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1. The best method for answering this question would be the experimental method. The experimental method seeks to identify a cause-effect relationship between variables (Myers, 2010). The room temperature is the factor or IV that is manipulated to determine if it’s effects a customer’s decision to buy an air conditioner...

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