QuestionQuestion

The first part is the annotated bibliography for the 2nd part.
Submit a 30-page (not including title, abstract or Reference pages) review, critique and analysis of finding relevance to the discipline of the psychology of a minimum of 24 peer-reviewed articles, 6 per each of four required student-selected domains of the larger field covered by four courses they successfully completed
Substance Abuse and Addiction
Professional Ethics and Standards
Contemporary Issues in Psychology
Physiological Psychology.
Completing and submitting an annotated bibliography of 24 peer-reviewed, evidence-based articles (6 per domain) selected for review.
Your Integrated Project Literature Review organization and flow outline must also be attached to this assignment tab along with the annotative bibliography.
Then do the following 2nd part:
--Conduct an in-depth review of articles selected from each of the 4 student-selected domain’s body of published literature.
--Synthesize the results of four psychology domain literature reviews into a cohesive and concise thesis length, graduate level integrated review
--Articulate in the finished literature review the importance of research conducted within the four course domains to the larger field of psychology
--Articulate an assessment of the logical connections between the four sets of literature review findings to produce a final cohesive literature review.
--Conclude the literature review with a summary of the logical relationships between the articles’ reported research findings, their relevance to the larger field of psychology and suggestions for future research directions based on critiques of the articles used.

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Substance Abuse and Addictions
Bonn-Miller, M. O., Vujanovic, A. A., & Drescher, K. D. (2011). Cannabis use among military veterans after residential treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 25(3), 485-491. doi: 10.1037/a0021945
Bonn-Miller, Vujanovic, and Drescher (2011) begin by exploring the historical links between cannabis use, and trauma, discussing how previous research has established that veterans are more likely to suffer trauma and that trauma symptoms, including hyperarousal and insomnia increase the likelihood of use, abusing, and becoming dependent on cannabis. The authors attempt to fill a gap examining these factors in a military population while considering how changes in PTSD symptoms impact cannabis use. To do this, the authors used an ethnically diverse sample of over 400 male, military, middle-aged veterans presenting to a residential treatment program for treatment-resistant PTSD, although other disorders, such as depression and alcoholism were also common among the sample. Trauma was assessed by asking questions about specific traumatic experiences, such as being a prisoner of war, and by administering the PTSD Checklist-Military Version (PCL-M) which strongly corresponds with diagnostic criteria for PTSD including scales for the main symptom clusters of re-experiencing, avoidance/numbing, and hyperarousal. The PCL-M was administered at the beginning and end of treatment to assess changes in PTSD symptoms. Substance use was assessed with the Addiction Severity Index, which asks questions about use habits for multiple drugs, including cannabis and this was completed at the same time as the PCL-M plus a 4-month follow-up. In terms of treatment, the facility used group CBT focusing on PTSD symptoms and did not specifically focus on treating substance use disorders. The authors used a range of descriptive and inferential statistics, including linear regression, to compare the rates of cannabis use across clients and consider how changes in cannabis use could be predicted by changes in PTSD symptoms. Approximately 10% of the sample used cannabis prior to the treatment and half of those individuals returned to cannabis use after treatment; in addition, about half of non-cannabis users began using cannabis in the four months after treatment. Regression analyses revealed that those using cannabis had lower PTSD scores prior to treatment and that returning to or starting cannabis use after treatment was predicted by PTSD scores; the same could not be said of any other substance of abuse. Further analyses revealed that the PTSD symptom clusters of numbness and hyperarousal in particular were significantly predictive of changes in cannabis use. From this data, the authors conclude that many veterans with severe PTSD may use cannabis as a means of self-medication to decrease symptoms of hyperarousal and allow for some emotional numbing. While these are valuable findings, some limitations include the lack of female participants and the short follow-up period, so future studies should have a more diverse sample and consider a longer follow-up period.   
Burnett-Zeigler, I., Ilgen, M., Valenstein, M., Zivin, K., Gorman, L., Blow, A., Duffy, S., & Chermack, S. (2011). Prevalence and correlates of alcohol misuse among returning Afghanistan and Iraq veterans. Addictive Behaviors, 36, 801-806. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2010.12.032
Burnett-Zeigler and colleagues (2011) briefly review the increased risk of alcohol problems and decreased likelihood of receiving treatment among military members before explaining the goal of this article. Specifically, there is little research about alcohol problems among National Guard members after returning from Iraq or Afghanistan. Toward these ends, the researchers collected survey data from nearly 600 Michigan Army National Guard members approximately 2 months after returning from deployment. The surveys included the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), questions about history of receiving and motivations to receive mental health and substance abuse services, background information (i.e. demographics, income, military service history, etc.), and information about current mental health functioning. Current mental health was assessed with questionnaires about depression (PHQ-9), PTSD (PCL-M), and anxiety (PSWQ). The researchers used a range of descriptive and inferential statistics including logistic regressions to examine how much each variable predicts alcohol use problems. The sample was mostly young adult males and more than half had been in the military for more than five years. Nearly one in three of the service members met criteria for an alcohol problem and those who were younger, spent less than five years in the military, and reported significant mental health concerns, such as depression and PTSD, were at the greatest risk. More specifically, men were four times more likely than women to have alcohol problems, and those struggling with depression and PTSD were 2 to 3 times more likely. While nearly one-third of the sample indicated alcohol problems and other problems, only 2.5% reported seeking services for substance abuse. The most common themes for neglecting to get services related to fears of negative impact on career as well as general self-esteem related to stigma. However, those who did get services reported being encouraged by multiple individuals within and outside of the military. While there was no significant predictive value of military or combat exposure to the risk of developing alcohol problems, depression and PTSD did predict alcohol use, which may suggest that those service members who are unable to cope with their military experiences are at particularly high risk of developing alcohol problems. In addition, the authors conclude that service members will be more likely to seek services if the military and society can make strides towards decreasing the stigma associated with treatment. However, these results are limited by sample limitations, especially since this data was collected in a military setting.
Clarke-Walper, K., Riviere, L. A., & Wilk, J. E. (2013). Alcohol misuse, alcohol-related risky behaviors, and childhood adversity among soldiers who returned from Iraq or Afghanistan. Addictive Behaviors, 39(2), 414-419. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2013.05.001
The research of Clarke-Walper, Riviere and Wilk (2013) attempts to clarify the interaction between adverse childhood experiences (ACE’s) such as abuse, family discord, or parental alcoholism, military related stress, such as combat exposure, mental health problems, and alcohol problems in a military population. To do this, the authors collected data from nearly 8,000 soldiers three months after returning from Iraq or Afghanistan by means of survey. The most unique aspect of the survey assessed ACE’s which were grouped into six categories including household illness, household drinking, maternal victim of violence, verbal abuse, physical abuse, and sexual abuse. Alcohol use and abuse was assessed with a series of questions relating to using alcohol excessively or engaging in risky behaviors after consuming alcohol. The Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL) and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) were used to assess mental health symptoms related to PTSD, depression, and anxiety. Combat experiences were assessed with a lengthier questionnaire used in other research assessing the presence of specific experiences such as being under enemy fire. This data was analyzed using standard descriptive statistics as well as logistic regressions to determine how each variable increases the risk of specific outcomes, such as alcohol abuse or risk-taking behavior while using alcohol. In this sample, nearly one in five participants had current mental health problems and nearly one in three had current alcohol problems, with about one in seven engaging in risky behavior, like drinking and driving or having unprotected sex, while drinking. The logistic regression analysis revealed that exposure to any ACE increased the risk of alcohol problems by 30-90% and the risk of dangerous alcohol use by 40-140%. More in depth analysis revealed that childhood sexual abuse was the strongest risk factor but alcoholism in the home was another important factor. This relationship was still substantial even after accounting for combat stress and mental health, suggesting that regardless of military experiences, those soldiers who had rough childhoods are at greater risk of negative outcomes in adulthood. Furthermore, those soldiers with difficult childhoods, increased combat related stress, and mental health problems are at extremely high risk of having alcohol problems and should receive increased screening and intervention. In addition, younger soldiers with lower rankings were more likely to demonstrate these relationships suggesting that earlier screening and intervention may be critical for effective prevention and better outcomes for active duty soldiers. This is particularly relevant for active duty soldiers as those who struggle with mental health problems and alcohol abuse are more likely to have decrements in performance, dysfunctional relationships, and impaired career advancement. One of the biggest limitations of this study was the specific tools used to assess the problems, as there were very few items assessing ACE’s or alcohol use; thus future research may benefit from more in depth analysis of these factors.
Golub, A. & Bennett, A. S. (2013). Prescription opioid initiation, correlates, and consequences among a sample of OEF/OIF military personnel. Substance Use and Misuse, 48(10), 811-820. doi: 10.3109/10826084.2013.796988
Golub and Bennett (2013) attempted to expand on previous research documenting the increased risk of opiate abuse among veterans by examining the pathways by which recent soldiers developed opiate problems. These researchers proposed three possible pathways termed iatrogenic, opportunistic, and recreational although these pathways may overlap. The recreational pathway is most common for civilians, who simply have increased risk of developing a problem because of recreational use of a drug. However, the iatrogenic pathway refers to prescription opiate (PO) use which eventually changes into abuse and dependence. The intersection of these two pathways is the opportunistic pathway, in which individuals already at increased risk of developing opiate abuse problems have increased access because of medical PO applications. To study these pathways in an active veteran sample, the researchers collected data from 269 veterans receiving services in New York City in 2011-2012 who were recruited for detailed surveys with the novel respondent driven sampling (RDS) method, which allows for active participants to locate and bring in other potentially valuable participants with similar characteristics. Due to the complexity of the proposed pathways, participants were asked about drug use prior to, during, and after their military service as well as about various substances of abuse and PO’s during each of those periods. In addition, participants were specifically asked detailed questions about alcohol use and abuse, drug use and abuse, traumatic brain injury, PTSD, and depression. The data was largely analyzed with descriptive statistics but comparisons with inferential statistics were used when comparing data over time. One of the most striking findings relates to general substance use...

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