1. In his book Some Thoughts Concerning Education, John Locke suggested ways that reading might be introduced to young children. In Section 150 of the book, Locke wrote, "Contrivances might be made to teach children to read, whilst they thought they were only playing." Explain what Locke meant by this, basing your thinking on examples from the reading. Then, discuss whether you agree disagree with Locke and why.

2. Jane Addams "foresaw a compassionate, interdependent world revolving around the principles of social justice, fairness, tolerance, respect, equal opportunity, civic responsibility and hope for every individual, family and community". To that end, she founded Hull House in 1889, where she instituted numerous innovative educational opportunities for people living in poverty. Describe two of these innovations that you believe have had the greatest impact on communities and/or education today, and explain why.

3. This week, you learned about Paulo Freire's thoughts on oppressive educational attitudes and practices. In your own words, analyze Freire's philosophy with regard to how education can liberate the oppressed.

4. Friedrich Froebel not only coined the term kindergarten but also recognized the integral role of play and active learning in children's development and education. He believed in providing children with specific objects and materials called "gifts" and "occupations." Compare and contrast "gifts" and "occupations" and, based on Froebel's viewpoint, summarize the teacher's role while children play and interact with each of these.

5. Consider what you have learned about John Dewey and his philosophy of education and then respond to the following: What is progressive education? What are its goals? What is the role of the teacher in a progressive education setting?

6. Summarize Maria Montessori's philosophy of education including her beliefs about educational environments, materials, and the role of the teacher.

7. 1. Jean Piaget did not consider himself an educational reformer; however, his research and beliefs have had a lasting effect on education and the ways that people view children and child development. In your own words, explain how knowledge of Piaget's four stages of intelligence might inform your thinking about children and your future work with children and families.

8. Explain Lev Vygotsky's theory of the Zone of Proximal Development and how knowledge of this theory might inform your future work with children.

9.Using examples from this week's Learning Resources, explain how your views are similar to or different from those of one of the psychologists studied this week.

10. Lilian G. Katz has been credited with a number of contributions to the field of early childhood education. One of her contributions, the Project Approach, has been known to foster children's development and learning as early as toddlerhood,and can also be used just as successfully with children in the upper elementary grades. Summarize the main elements of the Project Approach, and identify at least two ways that it exemplifies meaningful learning for children of any age.

11. Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences first included seven different kinds of intelligence; he currently includes nine. Reflect on what you have learned about this theory, and consider the differences between the traditional theory of intelligence and the theory of multiple intelligences as summarized in this week's Learning Resources. Then, explain how children in an educational setting might benefit from a teacher who understands and believes in Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences.

12. Reflect on what you have learned this week about emotional intelligence and social/emotional learning. Consider the "four branches" of emotional intelligence—accurately perceiving emotions in oneself and others, using emotions to facilitate thinking, understanding emotional meanings, and managing emotions (as defined by researchers John Mayer and Peter Salovey). Then, explain why emotional intelligence is a vital attribute in both teaching and learning situations.

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1. John Locke believed it was absolutely crucial that a child be made to read from a very young age but he cautioned that if reading was approached as a task, the child would likely see it as distasteful and a chore rather than a thing of pleasure. This is why Locke proposed parents treat reading as a form of 'play' rather than work.
In Locke's time, reading was seen as obligatory for children and a sign of good breeding, which meant that if children struggled to pick up reading they were punished for it, often by beating. Locke thus suggests presenting reading in such a way that the child itself seeks it out rather than having it forced on them....

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