1. Research shows that the neurological effects of being excluded from a social interaction are
a. impossible to detect.
b. similar to those experienced when we fail at a task.
c. similar to those experienced when we are in physical pain.
d. related to those experienced when we fall in love.
2. Athletes who are blind from birth
a. lose self-esteem if they think the sighted athletes believe they are non-competitive.
b. make the same facial expressions as sighted athletes when they win or lose.
c. have political attitudes more closely aligned to their physical condition than do sighted athletes.
d. Are found to be more attractive than sighted athletes.
3. Sue wants to be a biologist but thinks her biology professor, Dr. Wu, is wrong in her opinions about what kind of research is important. But when Sue goes to Dr. Wu's office, she is very friendly. Sue is acting friendly because she's concentrating on her ________ goal of getting a good grade rather than her ________ goal of becoming a renowned biologist.
a. larger; narrow
b. narrow; focussed
c. proximate; ultimate
d. selfish; selfless
4. Sheila says men are more aggressive because of sexual selection for dominance, whereas Rudy thinks it's because men are taught to be more aggressive by the culture. Sheila is giving a/an ________ explanation whereas Rudy is giving a/an ________ explanation for the same behavior.
a. ultimate; proximate
b. individual; social
c. proximate; ultimate
d. developmental; individual
5. Nira says men are more aggressive because of sexual selection for dominance, whereas Shalini thinks it's because men are taught to be more aggressive by the culture. Nira is giving a/an ________ explanation whereas Shalini is giving a/an ________ explanation for the same behavior.
a. social learning; sociocultural
b. evolutionary; social cognitive
c. evolutionary; sociocultural
d. social cognitive; evolutionary
6. Explaining why the Japanese tend to be less comfortable with talking into answering machines than Americans is probably best tackled from a(an) ________ perspective.
7. Sociocultural theorists and evolutionary theorists both look across cultures to study social behavior, but whereas sociocultural theorists focus on ________, evolutionary theorists focus on ________.
a. cultural norms; cultural learning
b. cross-cultural differences; cross-cultural similarities
c. cross-cultural similarities; cross-cultural differences
d. the behavior of groups; the behavior of individuals
8. Whereas archeologists hunt for fossils in the ground, psychologists can be said to seek fossils
a. in artifacts of culture.
b. inside the head as psychological mechanisms.
c. in the books and journals people write.
d. in the behavior of animals.
9. The finding that children raised together in a kibbutz pod do not feel romantically attracted to each other is best explained by
a. the social learning perspective.
b. the sociocultural perspective.
c. a combination of the sociocultural and social learning perspectives.
d. a combination of the social learning and evolutionary perspectives.
10. Two students hear a speech by a presidential candidate. One student concludes that the candidate is a forceful leader with innovative ideas, but the other student concludes that the candidate is a poor leader with no new ideas. Which perspective can best explain these different interpretations?
a. social cognitive
c. social learning
11. Todd, a 6-year-old boy, sees a girl down the street performing amazing aerial acrobatics on her skateboard. Later, he tells his mom he saw a BOY doing neat tricks on his skateboard. According to the findings of Martin and Halverson (1983), why didn't Todd tell the truth?
a. Todd is intentionally lying to his mother.
b. The girl was acting out of line with gender stereotypes for girls, which distorted Todd's memory.
c. Todd is jealous of the girl's abilities, so he decided to say that it was a girl.
d. Boys do not remember gender information as well as girls.
12. In the Condry and Condry (1976) study, why did people change their perception of the reaction of a baby to a jack-in-the-box based on whether they were told the baby was a girl or a boy?
a. Girl babies acted differently than boy babies.
b. The people misremembered the babies' reactions.
c. They knew that boys and girls react differently to punishment.
d. They adjusted their perceptions to fit with gender-role schemas.
13. The textbook argues that, instead of trying to explain gender differences in terms of only in our genes, our cultural learning experiences, or in our minds, we should
a. look for gender differences as a product of all of these working together.
b. look for gender differences only in our culture and our genes.
c. focus primarily on how gender differences assist with mating behavior.
d. focus primarily on how gender differences impact helping behavior and aggression.
14. Women occupy fewer positions of leadership in business and politics. How would the social learning perspective explain this gender disparity?
a. Women don't try to attain leadership positions because they believe it's impossible.
b. Women have the responsibility to bear, nurse, and care for children.
c. Women are not rewarded for displaying leadership qualities.
d. Women as leaders are not acceptable in Western culture.
15. Francois associates with high status friends in order to gain and maintain status, whereas Antonio acts aggressively in order to gain and maintain status. What principle of social behavior does this situation illustrate?
a. Different people use different behaviors to attain the same goal.
b. The same goals underlie different social behaviors.
c. Some behaviors are more effective for particular goals than others.
d. When people fail to gain status via association, they resort to aggression.
16. According to the textbook
a. different goals of social behavior are interdependent.
b. different goals of social behavior are independent.
c. different goals of social behavior are unrelated to the five basic motives.
d. the goals associated with each theoretical perspective are not shared by other perspectives.
17. Roger is highly motivated to be the chief editor of the college newspaper. He concentrates on it so much that sometimes he's rude to others on the paper. Roger's need for ________ is interfering with the extent to which others find him ________.
a. winning; dominant
b. dominance; agreeable
c. agreeableness; dominant
d. structure; intelligent
18. J. Edgar Hoover may have kept extensive records of the sex lives of powerful people in order to keep anyone from exposing the potentially damaging fact that he was a homosexual. This fits with which fundamental goal?
a. managing one's self-image
b. gaining social approval
c. gaining and maintaining status
d. supporting and protecting one's group
19. According to your textbook, one of the reasons that J. Edgar Hoover had a tendency to see communist associations was that he could easily bring to mind examples of communist associations. This cognitive bias is known as the ________.
a. representativeness heuristic
b. confirmation bias
c. availability heuristic
d. false consensus bias
20. The cognitive bias that results from seeking evidence that is consistent with our theories, and ignoring evidence that is inconsistent, is known as the
a. confirmation bias.
b. normative heuristic.
c. availability heuristic.
d. false consensus bias.
21. From the evolutionary perspective, ________ are aspects of the person, whereas ________ are aspects of the situations.
a. schemas; habits
b. internal social standards; societal norms
c. habits; rewards
d. genetic predispositions; features of our ancestors' environment
22. Lester's grew up in a bireligious household in which one parent was Catholic and one was Muslim. Lester has borrowed elements of each religion in his everyday life. When he sees the Christian symbols in his home he begins thinking about the Bible, and when he sees the Muslim artifacts he begins thinking about the Koran. This is an example of
a. different situations prime different norms.
b. different people change his situation.
c. different situations prime different parts of the same person.
d. the same situation primes different parts of the person.
23. Why is it not sufficient to conduct social psychological research just by watching and listening to what people do?
a. Observers have limited perceptual capacity.
b. People hide their true motives.
c. Observers oversimplify and distort what they hear and see.
d. all of the above
24. At a research meeting you hear a graduate student report findings that racism no longer exists, since in his survey he found that no one admitted to being a racist. What would you suggest to this graduate student as a good course of action?
a. Confirm his findings in a second sample.
b. Publish his findings immediately.
c. Use a different self-report measure of racism to corroborate his findings.
d. Get a covert measure to corroborate his findings.
25. A researcher conducts a study of the effect of gender of the victim on punishment. In the condition where the victim is female, the room temperature is over 90 degrees. In the condition where the victim is male, the room temperature is 70 degrees. Temperature of the room is a/an
b. independent variable.
c. dependent variable.
26. To which of the following fields has social psychology made important contributions?
a. medicine/health sciences
d. all of the above
Chapter 13 Study Questions
1. According to your textbook, what is one of the leading causes of environmental destruction and conflict in the world?
a. religious differences
c. racial prejudice
2. Jan is running a bake sale for the debate team. In order to make enough money for the whole debate team to go to the state championships, at least half of the team has to contribute baked goods for the sale. Jan runs the risk of facing a
a. public goods dilemma.
b. replenishing resource management dilemma.
c. tragedy of the commons.
d. prisoner's dilemma.
3. An individual who would sacrifice his or her own rewards and enable others to obtain larger rewards has a/an ________ value orientation.
4. A ________ policy involves an offer of reward to those who reduce their socially harmful behaviors.
5. Which of the following is a descriptive norm about behavior that affects the environment?
a. Driving over 80 miles per hour is wrong because it wastes gasoline.
b. Most people do not conserve water by taking short showers.
c. It is wrong to litter.
d. People should bring their own canvas bags when they go shopping.
6. According to the Deutsch (1986) study, which strategy is likely to be the LEAST successful in intergroup conflict?
a. nonpunitive deterrence
b. mutually assured destruction
c. turn the other cheek
d. punitive deterrence
7. Which of the following is FALSE regarding authoritarians?
a. They are especially prone to feeling threatened.
b. They are generally less favorable toward a strong military.
c. They are more likely to accept conspiracy theories.
d. They respect power and rigidly conform to social norms.
8. According to research, racism and authoritarian tendencies tend to increase
a. during times of decreasing unemployment.
b. during times of economic prosperity.
c. during times of decreasing interest rates.
d. during times of economic depression.
9. Social traps are problematic because the payoffs happen ________ but the negative consequences occur ________.
a. to the group; to individuals
b. to individuals; to the group
c. in the long-term; in the short-term
d. in the short-term; in the long-term
10. Wendy thinks that everyone should work together so that everyone in the group can benefit, even if individual rewards are slightly smaller. Wendy is a/an
11. A policy which fines homeowners if they use too much water is an example of a ________ policy.
a. social dilemma
c. social responsibility
12. "Integretative complexity" refers to
a. how complicated an idea may be.
b. how well a person understands a given idea or concept.
c. the extent to which a person exhibits "black-and-white" thinking.
d. the extent to which children learn to combine aspects of their personality as they develop.
13. The idea that the socially responsible thing to do is to ride your bike to work instead of driving your car is a/an
a. social norm.
b. injunctive norm.
c. descriptive norm.
d. personal norm.
14. Which of the following is NOT a reason that social dilemmas are so difficult to solve?
a. People do not care about damaging the environment.
b. People do not intend to destroy the environment or overpopulate the planet.
c. Social dilemmas are based on motivations that were adaptive for our ancestors.
d. People do not realize the long-range implications of their actions.
15. Which of the following statements is TRUE about gender differences and social dominance orientation?
a. Women are more selective in choosing mates, leading to higher social dominance orientation.
b. There are no significant differences between men and women in social dominance orientation.
c. Men must compete for mates, leading to a correlation between their social status and their reproductive success.
d. Biology, not culture, is responsible for gender differences in social dominance orientation.
16. In laboratory studies, as in the real world, what types of groups usually end up with the fewest rewards for the group?
a. groups with all egoistic members
b. groups with all prosocial members
c. groups with a mix of prosocial and egoistic members
d. groups with predominantly prosocial members and a few egoistic members
17. Individuals with an individualist value orientation
a. want to do better than everyone else, even if it means sacrificing some of their own winnings.
b. want to work with other group members so that all can benefit.
c. want to maximize their own personal gains regardless of the rest of the group.
d. would give up their own rewards so that others can benefit.
18. Voluntarist environmental policies attempt to motivate individuals' sense of
c. social responsibility.
d. enlightened self-interest.
19. A social trap is a situation in which
a. group members share a renewable resource that will continue to produce benefits only if individuals do not overharvest.
b. an individual can benefit from cooperating with another person, but can also benefit from competing against that person.
c. some individuals might profit from "free-riding" as long as others contribute.
d. individuals or groups are drawn toward immediate rewards that later prove to have negative consequences.
20. Akiko understands that if she doesn't recycle there will be negative consequences for the environment at some point in the distant future. But she just doesn't have time to take her cans and bottles across town to the recycling plant this week, so she dumps them in the trash. Akiko is experiencing
a. tragedy of the commons.
b. a public goods dilemma.
c. a social trap.
d. classical conditioning.
21. An environmental group wants to place an additional display on the dashboard of sport utility vehicles that tells drivers exactly how much money they are spending per mile. This would be an example of
a. bringing future negative consequences to the present.
b. changing long-term consequences with technology.
c. immediately punishing undesirable behavior.
d. highlighting selfish motivations.
22. Your text mentioned that driving efficient electric cars, insulating one's home, and using solar energy are all ways of
a. making individuals focus on long-term consequences to eliminate social traps.
b. using technology to change long-term consequences, thereby reducing the impact of social traps.
c. changing selfish motivations for immediate rewards.
d. encouraging people not to be selfish, thereby avoiding social traps.
23. From a purely economic perspective, which of the following options provides the most personal gain?
a. You contribute more than your fair share.
b. You contribute nothing and other people give more than enough.
c. You contribute only as much as others do.
d. You contribute less than others do.
24. Individuals with a competitive value orientation
a. want to work with other group members so that all can benefit.
b. want to do better than everyone else, even if it means sacrificing some of their own winnings.
c. want to maximize their own personal gains regardless of the rest of the group.
d. would give up their own rewards so that others can benefit.
25. The self-serving psychological mechanisms that contribute to global social dilemmas
a. are very recent developments in our psychological make-up.
b. are only present among individuals in capitalistic countries.
c. were originally adaptive for life in small groups.
d. have come about as a result of the global economy.
26. Overpopulation, destruction of the environment, and international conflict are examples of
a. prisoner's dilemmas.
b. game strategies.
c. social dilemmas.
d. individual-level problems.
27. Two countries are in conflict over a piece of land. Which of the following tactics would be most consistent with a GRIT strategy to reduce the conflict?
a. One country attacks the other and then challenges them to fight back.
b. One country tells the other that they will attack if their demands are not met.
c. One country concedes all their territory in response to a promise from the other side to be peaceful.
d. One country concedes a small part of the land and challenges the other country to match it.
28. The Alaska state government completely closed down the king crab fishing industry due to a replenishing resource management dilemma. What were the fishermen doing that caused the government to stop the fishing?
a. Their equipment was not sophisticated enough to catch crabs safely.
b. They were killing other sea life while trying to catch crabs.
c. They were overfishing the crabs to the point of extinction.
d. They were not catching enough crabs to justify the expensive equipment.
29. According to the Deutsch (1986) study, which strategy is likely to be the MOST successful in intergroup conflict?
a. nonpunitive deterrence
b. turn the other cheek
c. punitive deterrence
d. mutually assured destruction
30. Failing to recycle because we'd rather save a few minutes a week to do something else we find more rewarding is and example of a
a. public good
b. sliding reinforcer
c. an altruistic act
d. tit-for-tat strategy
31. The belief that escalations of international threat lead an opponent to feel more threatened and that leaders should demonstrate peaceful intentions to reduce defensive hostilities is associated with the
a. intergroup conflict view.
b. deterrence view.
c. authoritarian view.
d. conflict spiral view.
32. Karp and Gaulding (1995) divided environmental interventions into all of the following categories EXCEPT
Chapter 12 Study Questions
1. Social scientists have found that computer simulations of human social behavior
a. are useful for explaining current data and generating novel predictions.
b. are useful in the laboratory but rarely generalize to the external world.
c. tend not to be very useful.
d. tend to have too many confounds to be useful at this point in time.
2. In which of the following circumstances might a group decision be worse than an individual decision?
a. Leaders refrain from presenting their own positions.
b. Group members focus on group harmony.
c. The group is encouraged to gather information from the outside.
d. Leaders encourage people to air alternative perspectives.
3. People with physically mature facial features such as a broad jaw, narrow eyes and angular face are ________ likely to become leaders because ________.
a. less; they are perceived as less powerful
b. less; they are perceived as a threat
c. more; they fit with the traditional leadership prototype
d. more; they are perceived as more intelligent
4. As evidence that leadership success is contingent on group needs, research has demonstrated that workers in conventional occupations (such as accountants) respond well to ________ leadership, whereas workers in investigative occupations (such as college professors) respond well to ________ leadership.
a. liberal and permissive; conservative and traditional
b. charismatic; relational
c. inspirational; exemplary
d. task-oriented and authoritative; democratic and less directive
5. The text reports that leaders often succeed because they
a. encourage groupthink.
b. engage in collectivistic thinking.
c. have personal connections.
d. engage in individualistic thinking.
6. Working in groups can increase overall effectiveness or productivity when
a. social loafing occurs.
b. the task is routine.
c. it is possible to identify the contributions of each member of the group.
d. all members have similar tasks.
7. According to the text, which of the following is true of research on leadership?
a. Self-confident and tall males are perceived as more leader-like.
b. Groups led by leaders who are charismatic work more when the leader is present.
c. Groups led by leaders who are autocratic, as opposed to democratic, work more when the leader is absent.
d. Men are more effective leaders, even in jobs that require interpersonal skills.
8. Imagine you are an efficiency consultant with social psychological training and the local pickle company asks you to help it increase individual pickle packing productivity. Considering the phenomenon of social loafing, you should recommend
a. that the number of employees packing pickles should be increased quickly.
b. that the number of employees packing pickles should be increased slowly over time.
c. that the employees packing pickles should wear uniforms.
d. that individual packing productivity be made identifiable in some way.
9. Mark, a shy and sensitive student, finds himself yelling obscenities and performing highly aggressive acts when involved in a large student demonstration against a proposal to increase his college's tuition fee by 50%. Mark's behavior is most likely an example of
a. social interference.
c. social facilitation.
d. social loafing.
10. Factors that increase the extent to which a collection of individuals is "group-like" include all of the following EXCEPT
a. possessing structure.
b. sharing a common identity.
c. sharing similar attitudes.
11. Teams with high interpersonal cohesiveness are good at ________ but susceptible to ________.
a. communication; poor decision making
b. problem-solving; poor communication
c. decision making; poor coordination
d. generating alternative solutions; unstable group structure
12. Which of the following decreases the power of jurors holding minority views in the courtroom?
a. smaller juries
b. videotapes in courtrooms
c. the requirement that the jury should reach unanimity
d. increasing the diversity of the members of the jury
13. Which of the following features of group discussions is most likely to make the group decision better than individual decisions?
a. transactive memory
b. group polarization
c. social loafing
14. The space shuttle Columbia disaster, the Bay of Pigs invasion, and the decision to cover up the Watergate break-in were all mentioned in your text as examples of
c. social facilitation.
d. group polarization.
15. According to research on deindividuation, when people are in a group they are more likely to
a. increase their sense of personal identity.
b. adhere to their personal values.
c. increase their individual effort.
d. behave inconsistently with their personal values.
16. The disadvantages of diverse groups in the workplace include
a. over commitment to the group.
b. too much communication.
c. fewer solutions to problems generated.
d. lack of cohesion.
17. Which of the following is the most "group-like"?
a. a golf team where each player's score is critical to overall team success
b. a boxing team in which each person's performance and success is independent of the performance of other members.
c. a classroom in which each person's grades depend only on his/her achievement.
d. 3 strangers standing at a bus stop who don't even notice each other
18. Group discussion is likely to lead members to make decisions that are
a. more extreme in the direction that the group initially favored.
b. extreme in the direction that the group initially opposed.
c. extreme in the direction that they individually favored before the discussion.
d. less extreme in the direction that the group initially favored.
19. Alice Eagly and her colleagues (1995) conducted a meta-analysis to review sex differences in leader effectiveness. They discovered that
a. men were more effective as leaders in jobs that required a tough-minded task orientation.
b. women were more effective as leaders in jobs that required interpersonal skills.
c. overall sex differences in leadership effectiveness were zero.
d. all of the above
20. Individuals holding a minority view will be most persuasive when they
a. never compromise in their views.
b. are able to show why they have a personal stake in the issue.
c. demonstrate that their group has always rejected majority opinions.
d. use high-quality arguments and come across as credible.
21. The effects of transformational leadership on the group typically are
a. high satisfaction among followers and high productivity.
b. low satisfaction among followers and high productivity.
c. low satisfaction among followers and low productivity.
d. high satisfaction among followers and low productivity.
22. Johnson is an accomplished high school basketball player, but Franklin is still learning basketball. Whereas Johnson usually hits 75% of his free throws during practice, Franklin makes only 25% of his. However, during the last big game, Johnson made 85% of his free throws and Franklin made only 15% of his. This finding is predicted by research on
b. social polarization.
c. social loafing.
d. social facilitation.
23. Suppose that you are in a hospital where you are waiting for surgery. According to research, you would prefer to share a room with a person who
a. has never had surgery before.
b. recently had surgery that was different from yours.
c. is about to have surgery similar to yours.
d. recently had surgery similar to yours.
24. Transactive memory is more likely to lead to more accurate decisions if
a. the group is very concerned about its image.
b. group members are relatively independent.
c. the group has a very strict hierarchy.
d. group members possess accurate information.
25. Your text discusses a particular combination of personality qualities that facilitate becoming a leader. Former British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher, who won a degree from Oxford and ran for Parliament at the age of 26, illustrates these personality qualities. Those qualities are
a. collectivism and independence.
b. authoritarianism and risk-taking.
c. individualism and creativity.
d. ambition and the ability to work hard.
26. Imagine you were a public official who lived in the early part of the 20th century when the Ku Klux Klan frequently harassed minorities. Now imagine you had the ability to pass a law designed to diminish the frequency of Klan harassment. Based on the concept of deindividuation, which of the following ideas might you consider in order to significantly reduce undesirable Klan behavior?
a. make the public wearing of hoods and masks illegal
b. require all members of mobs to wear nametags
c. prohibit mobs from gathering when it is dark
d. all of the above
27. People in individualistic societies are more likely to join multiple performance groups because
a. they are more likely to subordinate their own needs to the group needs.
b. they have stronger need "to belong."
c. they are in general more interdependent.
d. they are interested in satisfying their particular needs at the moment.
28. According to your text, heterogeneous groups of people seem to do better on tasks requiring ________, whereas diversity in experience can hurt the performance of groups when success is determined by ________.
a. new solutions and quick adjustments; each member of the group performing his or her role well
b. intelligence and high levels of education; traditional ways of achieving success
c. adherence to deadlines; flexibility and quick adjustments
d. precision and accuracy; flexibility and quick adjustments
29. As an architect, Rita and her partners are concerned about handicapped access to buildings. Recently, she attended a design meeting where she heard her colleagues make a number of strong, new arguments for increased access. As the group discussion continued, the partners seemed to develop an even stronger attitude favoring handicapped access. Which of the following best describes what Rita's group experienced?
a. social facilitation
b. group polarization
c. group inoculation
d. social loafing
30. Whereas ________ helps groups to make better decisions than individuals alone, ________ can make groups susceptible to poor decision making.
a. social comparison; social facilitation
b. groupthink; minority influence
c. transactive memory; groupthink
d. accommodating leadership, groupthink
31. Which of the following motivates competition for status?
b. salicylic acid
32. In the Phi Upsilon Nu sorority at Upstate University, sisters expect each other to party hard on the weekends, to get multiple navel piercing, and to wear the color pink. This set of shared expectations of how group members ought to behave is called
a. a descriptive norm.
b. a proscriptive norm.
c. a postscriptive norm.
d. an injunctive norm.
33. During the cold war years, the collective Russian farms had spectacularly low yields, whereas small, private plots kept by Russian citizens had phenomenally high yields. One reason for the poor production output of large, collective Soviet farms is
b. social facilitation.
c. social loafing.
d. collectivistic orientation.
1. The tendency to submit to those with greater status than oneself and to denigrate those with less status than oneself is known as
2.Contact between members of two different groups is successful in reducing intergroup prejudice and hostilities only when
a.the contact between groups is rewarding.
b.group members violate negative stereotypes of their groups.
c.members of the two groups work toward a common goal.
d.all of the above are necessary requirements
3.Suppose that a white couple and an Hispanic couple are both looking for a house. According to research, which of the following is likely to happen?
a.The white couple will be informed of more available houses.
b.The white couple will get a better deal only if they present themselves as having a higher income.
c.The Hispanic couple will pay about 3,000 dollars less for a house equivalent to the white couple's.
d.The Hispanic couple will receive more follow-up calls from the realtor.
4.The goal-based approach suggests that one effective strategy for reducing prejudice is to
a.teach people the true facts about members of other groups.
b.put people in a situation where their goal is to make judgments as quickly as possible.
c.activate goals that are incompatible with prejudice, stereotyping, and discrimination.
d.put people in situations where they have to compete against the other group.
5.In a study conducted by Greenwald and colleagues (2003), participants played a videogame-like task in which a black or white character popped out from behind a dumpster. Participants had to quickly decide if the character was a criminal holding a gun, a private citizen, or an undercover officer. The researchers found that
a.black characters were more likely to be incorrectly shot by prejudiced individuals, but less likely to be incorrectly shot by non-prejudiced individuals.
b.black characters were more likely to be incorrectly shot than white characters.
c.black characters were more likely to be incorrectly shot if they were citizens, but not undercover officers.
d.individuals who did not know the cultural stereotype about blacks were most likely to incorrectly shoot black characters.
6.Members of a disadvantaged minority group having a more difficult time competing for employment because of poorer educational backgrounds is an example of
a.indirect institutional discrimination.
c.direct institutional discrimination.
7.Which of the following is true about efficient stereotypes?
a.They often exaggerate real differences between groups.
b.They rarely reflect any real differences between groups.
c.They require extra cognitive effort to apply them.
d.They stem from the tendency to see other groups as being overly heterogeneous.
8.Research using the minimal intergroup paradigm has shown that people
a.are not likely to exhibit ingroup bias if the groups are defined in an arbitrary fashion.
b.are likely to exhibit ingroup bias even when the groups are defined in an arbitrary fashion.
c.are more likely to exhibit ingroup bias in small groups than in large groups.
d.are more likely to exhibit ingroup bias in large groups than in small groups.
9.The ignorance hypothesis states that if people only learned what members of other groups are truly like, they wouldn't stereotype, be prejudiced, or discriminate against them. Research based on this idea has shown that
a.simply teaching people what other groups are like is a highly effective method to eliminate prejudice between groups.
b.simply putting people together is not enough to reduce intergroup hostility unless they are taught facts about members of the other groups.
c.simply putting people together or giving them facts about the members of the other group is not enough to reduce intergroup hostility.
d.merely putting individuals from antagonistic groups together can significantly reduce hostility.
10.Research showed that potential employers spoke ________ when the job-seekers wore hats suggesting they were gay versus when they wore hats suggesting they were from Texas.
a.less and seemed less helpful and interested
b.more but made anti-gay comments
c.less and made anti-gay comments
d.more and were more helpful and interested
11.Ingroup bias is
a.a phenomenon that has become a problem only in recent centuries
b.found mostly in less developed nations.
c.limited to situations in which groups must compete for resources.
d.a cross-cultural feature of human social life.
12.Which of the following individuals would be most likely to derogate members of another group?
a.a low self-esteem person belonging to a high status group
b.a low self-esteem person belonging to a low status group
c.a high self-esteem person belonging to a low status group
d.a high self-esteem person belonging to a high status group
13.Members of ethnic group Y blame members of ethnic group Z for the poor job opportunities in society. This is an example of
a.social identity theory.
d.perceived outgroup homogeneity.
14.In a study investigating the tangible costs of discrimination, researchers studied the audition techniques and hiring decisions of 11 major orchestras as a function of how applicants were auditioned. They found that
a.concealed auditions decreased the likelihood that female musicians would advance to later rounds of auditions.
b.when their gender was known, female musicians were more likely to win the job.
c.concealed auditions almost doubled the likelihood that female musicians would win the job.
d.female musicians fared better when the judges viewed their performance.
15.Prejudices and stereotypes against members of other groups are more likely to emerge
a.when the groups cooperate toward achieving a common goal.
b.among people who have recently experienced personal success.
c.among people who score low on social dominance orientation.
d.when the groups compete against each other.
16.Robert believes that all New Yorkers are loud and obnoxious, dislikes them, and refuses to take phone messages from his sister's New York friends. His ________ is an example of ________.
a.refusal to take phone messages; stereotyping
b.belief that all New Yorkers are loud and obnoxious; stereotyping
c.dislike of all New Yorkers; discrimination
d.refusal to take phone messages; prejudice
17.When members of a group believe that the majority thinks them inferior in terms of a particular skill or ability, the minority members may
a.disidentify with the skill/ability.
b.suffer a decrement in performance with respect to the skill/ability.
c.reduce in their mind the importance of this skill/ability.
d.all of the above
18.The idea that prejudice stems from a desire to enhance our self-esteem by comparing our group favorably to another group is the central assumption of which theory?
19.Sexual harassment is considered illegal when it
a.creates a professional setting that is sexually offensive, intimidating, or hostile.
b.is directed at only one gender.
c.attempts to exchange something of value for sexual favors.
d.all of the above
20.Carla likes her life to be relatively simple and well organized. She dislikes interruptions and unexpected events, and strives for simple ways to view the world. Based on this information, you predict that Carla will score high on a measure of ________ and will ________ to use her existing stereotypes to understand others.
a.authoritarianism; not be likely
b.social dominance avoidance; be likely
c.need for structure; be likely
d.conformity seeking; not be likely
21.Cooperation between members of different groups has been shown to be
a.an effective way to reduce prejudice only when the contact occurs at the institutional rather than the individual level.
b.an effective way to reduce prejudice, because it forces people to form impressions when they are cognitively overloaded.
c.an effective way to reduce prejudice, because it motivates people to be accurate in their understanding of outgroup members.
d.an ineffective way to reduce prejudice, because it increases the tendency to view each other's group in a simplified way.
22.The desire for social approval may lead people to
a.adopt tolerant views and express less prejudice.
b.adopt negative prejudice and derogate outgroups.
c.shift their expression of prejudice at different times and places.
d.all of the above
23.In a study by Steele and Aronson (1995) demonstrating the effects of stereotype threat, African-American students performed
a.worse on a verbal section of the Graduate Record Exam when race was made salient.
b.better on a verbal section of the Graduate Record Exam when race was made salient.
c.worse on a verbal section of the Graduate Record Exam when they were threatened with a punishment for every wrong answer.
d.better on a verbal section of the Graduate Record Exam when they thought the test was diagnostic of intellectual abilities.
24.Which of the following is NOT discussed in the text as a reason for the emergence of negative prejudices and stereotypes?
a.competition between groups for the same resources
b.individualization of the Western society
c.motivation to gain genetic advantage
d.justifying group advantage
25.Which of the following theories about the development of the authoritarian personality has been supported by research?
a.severe punishment by parents
b.modeling of authoritarianism by parents
c.genetic influences on personality
d.all of the above
26.How does the phenomenon of self-fulfilling prophecy relate to intergroup competition?
a.As people compete with others, they learn more facts about them, which reduces intergroup hostility.
b.As people view others as competitors, they begin to compete less, thus decreasing the intergroup hostility.
c.As people view others as competitors, they themselves begin to compete, which increases the intergroup hostility.
d.The less we present ourselves as competitive, the more competitive the outgroup becomes, which at the end increases intergroup hostility.
27.Evelyn and her co-workers have just been laid off at the aerospace plant. To make herself feel better she thinks, "At least we're not like those welfare mothers." By viewing her own group more favorably than members of another group, she is engaging in a process known as
c.downward social comparison.
28.According to your text, the current movement in the attitudes toward different social groups partially reflects
a.more direct expression of prejudice.
b.a shift toward social intolerance.
c.social norms against expressions of bigotry.
d.more extreme attitudes toward other groups.
29.Mandy views religious worship as an opportunity to make friends, gain status, or find support during difficult times. According to the text, Mandy is likely to be
a.as prejudiced as her friend Sybil, who views religion as a never-ending personal journey toward truth.
b.more negatively prejudiced than her nonreligious friend, Lara.
c.as prejudiced as her nonreligious friend, Lara.
d.less prejudiced than her nonreligious friend, Lara.
30.Which of the following is TRUE regarding sexual harassment?
a.It is perceived as more harassing when performed by an attractive single individual.
b.It is perceived as more harassing when performed by a person in a position of power.
c.Men are more likely than women to perceive staring and flirting as harassing.
d.Sexual harassment is considered illegal only when it is directed at women.
31.Which of the following forms of religiosity is NOT linked to negative prejudices against outgroups?
d.All of the above are linked to negative prejudices against outgroups.
32.Which of the following is FALSE about institutionalized discrimination?
a.It may be hostile.
b.It is performed by individuals.
c.It may be unintentional.
d.It may be direct.
33.Complex situations and time pressure ________ stereotyping by ________.
a.decrease; decreasing the need for structure
b.increase; limiting the attentional capacity
c.decrease; decreasing the need for mental efficiency
d.increase; increasing the motivation to be accurate
34.In the study by Rokeach (1971), when white students confronted the discrepancy between their negative prejudices and their value of equality, they
a. decreased their support for African American equal rights.
b.increased their opposition to affirmative action.
c.felt more ambivalent about African Americans.
d.became more likely to join the NAACP.
35. Implicit prejudices are
a.prejudices that apply to groups with whom one has never had direct contact.
b.prejudices that an individual may not be aware of and cannot directly report.
c.prejudices that are not expressed publicly.
d.milder forms of prejudice.
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