Read the scenario below and use your understanding of adolescent social, cultural, and cognitive development to respond to the questions. Try to evaluate the main problem in the scenario and then use any of the theories or concepts from your Reading to support your response. Be sure you have read the article by Dahl before responding to this Discussion Board.
Scenario: Manny
You work as a psychologist in a substance abuse agency and treat adolescents who are alcoholics. Your new client, Manny, is a 14-year-old Hispanic male who lives with his grandmother in a two-room apartment in a poor section of the city. He is physically small for his age and seems to struggle with academic skills (he is functionally illiterate according to the intake assessor). When asked why he drinks, he simply looks at his shoes and shrugs. In fact, he really does not provide much information about anything, which you know is typical of most adolescents. You have noticed that he does become animated when you ask about his grandmother, music, and cars. He was arrested for public drunkenness and assigned to your outpatient treatment program as part of his rehabilitation.
In this session, he finally tells you more about himself and his troubles. He tells you that he has not attended his classes at the high school (he is a freshman) in over 2 weeks. Now, he is afraid to return because he thinks that he will be in trouble and that they may not allow him to return. He says that he realizes that getting an education will help him to leave his neighborhood someday for a better life. He wants to know what to do.
1. Given what you know about adolescent development, assess Manny’s main problems. Predict which of the problems might worsen without proper intervention and support your ideas using the concepts/theories from your Readings.
Create a short dialogue of what you would say to Manny to help him to identify his real problem. Then, guide him towards understanding what the real problem for him is, focusing on how his biological development might be interfering with his social development

For this Assignment, select one of the topics listed below, research the topic using primary sources, and be sure to respond to the questions. The paper should be 4–5 pages long (body) and should specifically address all parts of the question.
Along with the text, use a minimum of five scholarly journals, books, articles, or other academic sources. You will find many journal articles pertaining to your topic of choice.
The research paper should:
Follow Assignment directions (review grading rubric for best results).
Use correct APA formatting per the APA Publication Manual, 6th Edition.
Demonstrate college-level communication through the composition of original materials in Standard American English.
Be written in Standard American English and be clear, specific, and error-free. If needed, be sure to use the Writing Center for help.
Your Assignment should include:
Title Page.
Body of the paper (4–5 pages).
Reference Page.
Substance Abuse
1. Explain how adolescents develop substance abuse problems. What influences lead them to drinking or using drugs?
2. What risk factors are common amongst adolescents who develop addictive disorders?
3. Using one of the developmental theories that you have studied, explain how the adolescent’s selfidentity is affected by the addiction.
4. Propose interventions that could be used to reduce the risk of experimenting with alcohol and drug use.

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How adolescents develop substance abuse problems.
The selected topic is substance abuse. Adolescents might develop substance abuse problems in numerous ways. As such, a myriad of factors often predisposes an adolescent toward indulging in alcohol or use of drugs. For instance, Berks (2014) expresses that if a teenager interacts with peers who use or even provide drugs, it is highly possible that he or she will be predisposed towards such behaviors. The possibility of drug and alcohol use increases in the case of the teenager comes from a family background that is characterized by family difficulties such as the absence of parental involvement and warmth. It has also been revealed that substance abuse might also be caused by genetics. Vince (2002) presents that a normal mutation in a gene that mostly serves to regulate the breakdown of the natural brain cannabinoids often contributes substantially towards drug abuse along with addiction. Vince (2002) cited a study by Scripps Research Institute, CA, which investigated at least 1,000 individuals that attended medical clinic because of drug-related issues including alcohol.
According to Vince (2002), this study depicted that drug addicts and abusers are four times more likely to have two copies of mutated genes relative to their counterparts who do not use drugs or alcohol. Vince (2002) explains that the mutated gene usually encodes the FAAH, which refers to the fatty acid amide hydrolyse. This enzyme is known for its part in addiction pathways in the human brain. The mutation of the gene, consequently, causes natural cannabinoids to build up. If this is the case, Vince (2002) claims that people with the mutated gene are likely to have a higher amount of a given drug or substance for them to have the same effect. Berks (2014) claimed that environmental factors also contribute significantly towards teenage drug abuse. Among the environmental drivers that...

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