## Question

Suppose that the 19 circles in Figure 8.1 on p 281 of Goldstone, Kersten and Carvalho represent 19 spheres of different sizes and shades of grey.

The X axis represents size and the Y axis represents the grayscale value of each sphere.

Jane and Jill are both shown the spheres and asked to remember what they have observed.

Jane doesn't group the spheres into categories and simply stores the size and shade of each sphere.

For example, she remembers that:

Sphere s1 has size x1. Sphere s1 has shade y1.

Sphere s19 has size x19. Sphere s19 has shade y19.

Jill forms four categories that we will label A through D. She remembers that:

Sphere s1 is an A. Sphere s2 is an A. Sphere s3 is an A. Sphere s4 is an A.

Sphere s5 is a B. Sphere s8 is a B.

Sphere s9 is a C. Sphere s13 is a C.

Sphere s14 is a D. Sphere s19 is a D.

As have size xA. As have shade yA.

Bs have size xB. Bs have shade yB.

Cs have size xC. Cs have shade yC.

Ds have size xD. Ds have shade yD.

For our purposes, each sentence in italics above counts as a single piece of information.

(a) (2 points) How many pieces of information in total does Jane remember about the spheres?

(b) (2 points) How many pieces of information in total does Jill remember about the spheres?

(c) (8 points) How are categories useful? Answer this question by describing one advantage of Jill's strategy compared to Jane's.

(d) (8 points) How can categories be harmful? Answer this question by describing one disadvantage of Jill's strategy compared to Jane's.

Question 3

An item can simultaneously belong to a subordinate category (e.g. "poodle"), a basic level category (e.g. "dog") and a superordinate category (e.g. "animal").

Suppose that you learn that an item belongs to category C, where C is either a subordinate, basic level or superordinate category.

Otherwise you know nothing about the item.

Even so, you should be able to make some inductive inferences about the item for example, if you are told that the item is a dog, you can make the inductive inference that it probably has a tail.

(a) (4 points) Fill the blank with either SUBORDINATE, BASIC LEVEL or SUPERORDINATE:

You will be able to make the greatest number of inductive inferences about the properties of the item if C is a category

(b) (16 points) Explain your response to part (a)

Question 4

(a) (5 points) What is the "classical view" of concepts?

Explain this view in your own words. Goldstone, Kersten and Carvalho discuss three phenomena that challenge the classical view.

List these phenomena and explain in your own words why each one challenges the classical view.

(b) (5 points) List phenomenon 1 and explain why this phenomenon challenges the classical view.

(c) (5 points) List phenomenon 2 and explain why this phenomenon challenges the classical view.

(d) (5 points) List phenomenon 3 and explain why this phenomenon challenges the classical view.

Question 5

Table 8.1 on p 6276 specifies 9 stimuli that vary along four dimensions and that are organized into categories A and B.

Describe how the concepts A and B would be represented by a rule-based model, a prototype model, and an exemplar model.

Your descriptions should be as concrete as possible - in other words, you should describe the actual rules, prototypes and exemplars that would be used by the three models.

(a) (7 points) Explain how a rule-based model would represent the concepts.

Your explanation should include a specific rule that perfectly distinguishes between the concepts.

(b) (7 points) Explain how a prototype model would represent the concepts.

Your explanation should characterize the prototype for category A and the prototype for category B.

(c) (6 points) Explain how an exemplar model would represent the concepts.

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AssignmentQuestion 2.

(a) How many pieces of information in total does Jane remember about the spheres?

19 x 2 = 38 pieces of information in total (19 items times 2 features (size and shade))

(b) How many pieces of information in total does Jill remember about the spheres?

19 + 8 = 27 pieces of information in total (19 items’ categories + 2 features per 4 categories (8))

(c) How are categories useful? Answer this question by describing one advantage of Jill’s strategy compared to Jane’s.

Jill's strategy is more efficient because fewer pieces of information are required to specify the category and store it in memory than to store a complete description.

Moreover, aside from conserving memory storage requirements, Jill’s strategy also has an advantage of the reduced need for learning (Bruner, Goodnow, & Austin, 1956). Also, Jill will likely maintain efficient long-term representations by preserving category-level information rather than individual-level information.

(d) How can categories be harmful? Answer this question by describing one disadvantage of Jill’s strategy compared to Jane’s.

A disadvantage of Jill’s strategy compared to Jane’s is that by using category-level information, she might occasionally overgeneralize and make errors. Her reproductions will likely reflect a compromise between the stimulus itself and the category to which it belongs, and with time delays, the contribution of category-level information relative to individual-level information increases, so individual nuances might be lost (Huttenlocher, Hedges, and Vevea, 2000).

Question 3.

(a) You will be able to make the greatest number of inductive inferences about properties of...

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