How effective is acupuncture in treating older adults with chronic pain caused by one of the following: a-lower back pain, b-osteoarthritis, c-knee pain, and d-neck pain?
Is acupuncture as effective as cognitive behavioral therapy in managing chronic low back pain?
What non-pharmacological treatments for chronic pain are effective at reducing pain symptoms and improving functioning?
What are the non-pharmacological therapies available for treating chronic pain that engage the reward center of the brain in a similar way to opioids?
What are effective treatments for chronic pain in older adults in primary care settings?

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Chronic pain is associated emotional reactions depending on a person’s perception on the cause of the pain (Braden & Sullivan, 2008). People living with pain become increasingly vulnerable to psychological distress –anxiety, depression and impaired cognitive functionality. Agüera-Ortiz et al. (2011) observed that 60% of patients diagnosed with severe depression have pain symptoms. Chronic pain and mood disorders appear to have a bidirectional relationship such that people living with pain are diagnosed with mood disorders and those suffering depression also have pain complaints. Findings from research studies suggest that nearly 50% of patients living with chronic pain due to underlying health problem are...

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