Question

Judaism:

1. Explain how the Jewish celebrations relate to their religion (give three examples)
2. What is the “Kabbalah” and how important is it to the medieval Jews?
3. Name two great Jewish thinker or philosopher, and briefly explain their ideas.
4. Compare the major differences in their beliefs and practices between the Reform Judaism and Orthodox Judaism (Give three examples)
5. Who were the Pharisees? What did they believe? Explain the significance(s) of their beliefs
6. According to what you have studied, is Judaism a religion, a culture or something else? (you could choose multi answers supported by your reasons)

Christainity:

1. With Two examples, explain how Jewish ideas/beliefs are adopted by Christians
2. Take either Christmas or Easter as an example, explain how these “Christian” celebrations relate to secular practices.
1. According to the New Testament, which were the two basic rituals of early Christianity?
2. What are the major differences in their beliefs and practices between the Catholic and Orthodox Church? (give three examples)
3. List two Orders from Catholic Church and briefly explain their ideas (Franciscans and Dominicans)
4. Why did Protestant Reformation happen? Name three of the famous reformers.
5. How many sacraments does the Catholic Church follow? What are they? And how many in the Protestant churches in general?

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Judaism:

1. Explain how the Jewish celebrations relate to their religion (give three examples)
All or almost all major Jewish celebrations have religious roots or are of religious nature. For instance, the spring holiday of Pesakh (Passover) celebrates exodus of Jews from the Egyptian slavery to the Promised Land of Israel. Rosh ha-Shana (New Year) celebrated in Fall is a remembrance of the creation of the world according to the Jewish religious calendar. Speaking about individual or family celebrations, bar-mitzvah for boys (celebrated at the age of 12) signifies adulthood. From that time on a young man is obliged to keep all the commandments and is called to read the Torah publicly in the synagogue for the first time.

2. What is the “Kabbalah” and how important is it to the medieval Jews?
Kabbalah is a system of Jewish medieval mysticism. It provided consolation for Jews in the period where they were oppressed and discriminated against. Kabbalah contained original ideas that later were used in philosophy and influenced both Jewish and non-Jewish culture.

3. Name two great Jewish thinker or philosopher, and briefly explain their ideas.
Philo of Alexandria (1 century BCE – 1 century CE). He lived in the diaspora, and he was well familiar both with Jewish religious tradition and ancient Greek philosophy. In his work he tried to fuse or mix ideas from Judaism and Greek philosophy.
Maimonides (died in 1204) was a philosopher, astronomer, and medical doctor. He lived in present-day Spain (at that time under Arabic domination) and in Egypt. His work was based upon ideas of Greek philosopher Aristotle. Maimonides taught that religion and science never contradict each other, but rather compliment each other....

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