Question

ECOUNTERING THE REAL: FAITH AND PHILOSOPHICAL ENQUIRY
1. According to Encountering the Real - Module 1: Logic and Critical Thinking what type of fallacy is “she says that she loves me; and she must be telling the truth; because she certainly wouldn’t lie to someone she loves?”
A. Dubious authority
B. Appeal to force
C. Attacking a straw man
D. Begging the question
E. Distraction

2. According to Encountering the Real - Module 1: Logic and Critical Thinking what form of inference is “P or Q; Not P; therefore Q?”
A. Modus tollens
B. Disjunctive syllogism
C. Absorption
D. Hypothetical syllogism
E. Modus ponens

3. According to Encountering the Real - Module 1: Logic and Critical Thinking what type of deductive argument is “if life has meaning then God exists; God does not exist; therefore life has no meaning?”
A. Modus pollens
B. Reductio ad absurdum
C. Modus tollens
D. Categorical syllogism
E. Hypothetical syllogism

4. According to Encountering the Real - Module 1: Logic and Critical Thinking what type of fallacy is “if you stay up too late you’ll miss breakfast; you didn’t stay up too late; therefore you didn’t miss breakfast?”
A. Distraction
B. Unclear or shifting conclusions
C. Pseudoquestions
D. Dubious authority
E. Denying the antecedent

5. According to Encountering the Real - Module 1: Logic and Critical Thinking what type of syllogism is “all lemons are yellow; Sam the canary is yellow; therefore Sam is a lemon?”
A. Hypothetical
B. Categorical
C. Tautology
D. Disjunctive
E. Conjunctive

6. According to Encountering the Real - Module 1: Logic and Critical Thinking what is the assessment of the deductive argument “all tortoises are pink; Antisthenes is a tortoise; therefore Antisthenes is pink?”
A. Invalid argument; false premise; false premise; false conclusion
B. Valid argument; false premise; false premise; false conclusion
C. Invalid argument; false premise; true premise; false conclusion
D. Valid argument; false premise; true premise; false conclusion
E. Valid argument; true premise; true premise; true conclusion

7. According to Encountering the Real - Module 1: Logic and Critical Thinking what type of fallacy is “people are free as long as they can think for themselves; prisoners in jail are free to think for themselves; therefore prisoners in jail are free?”
A. Vicious circle
B. Slippery slope
C. Inappropriate arguments
D. Appeal to force
E. Changing meanings

8. According to Encountering the Real - Module 1: Logic and Critical Thinking what type of argument is “the philosopher from northern Greece is a well-known homosexual; therefore his claim that the universe is ultimately made up of atoms should be ignored?”
A. Ad hominem arguments
B. Inappropriate arguments
C. Attacking a straw man
D. Emotional appeals
E. Absorption

9. According to Encountering the Real - Module 1: Logic and Critical Thinking what type of statement is “God is all-powerful so he could create a mountain so huge that even He could not move it?”
A. Tautology
B. Logical
C. Paradox
D. Categorical
E. Disjunctive

10. According to Encountering the Real - Module 1: Logic and Critical Thinking what “does not guarantee the truth of the conclusion but only makes it more reasonable for us to believe the conclusion compared with other possibilities?”
A. Deductive logic
B. Hypothetical logic
C. Constructive logic
D. Inductive logic
E. Absorption logc

11. According to Encountering the Real - Module 1: Logic and Critical Thinking what type of fallacy is “we are compelled to act since the women and children of America cannot purchase healthcare on their own?”
A. Distraction
B. Pity
C. Irrelevancies
D. Mere assertion
E. Dubious authority

12. According to Encountering the Real - Module 1: Logic and Critical Thinking what type of argument is “justice is whatever the strongest person insists on; if justice is the will of the strongest then it is just for the strongest to be unjust?”
A. Paradox
B. Hypothetical syllogism
C. Tautology
D. Modus ponens
E. Reductio ad absurdum

13. According to Encountering the Real - Module 1: Logic and Critical Thinking what “guarantees the truth of the conclusion if the premises are true?”
A. Inductive logic
B. Hypothetical logic
C. Absorption logic
D. Constructive logic
E. Deductive logic

14. According to Encountering the Real - Module 1: Logic and Critical Thinking what type of deductive argument is “if you care enough you’ll send the very best; you are not sending the very best; therefore you do not care enough?”
A. Modus tollens
B. Disjunctive syllogism
C. Absorption
D. Hypothetical syllogism
E. Modus ponens

15. According to Encountering the Real - Module 1: Logic and Critical Thinking what type of fallacy is “if you stay up too late you’ll will miss breakfast; you missed breakfast; therefore you stayed up too late?”
A. Begging the question
B. Unclear or shifting conclusions
C. Affirming the consequent
D. Attacking a straw man
E. Reductio ad absurdum

16. According to Encountering the Real - Module 1: Logic and Critical Thinking what is the assessment of the deductive argument “all lemons are yellow; Sam the canary is yellow; therefore Sam is a lemon?”
A. Valid argument; false premise; false premise; false conclusion
B. Invalid argument; false premise; false premise; false conclusion
C. Invalid argument; true premise; false premise; true conclusion
D. Invalid argument; false premise; true premise; false conclusion
E. Invalid argument; true premise; true premise; false conclusion

17. According to Encountering the Real - Module 1: Logic and Critical Thinking what is this trivially true statement “I wouldn’t be here if I hadn’t arrived?”
A. Logical
B. Begging the question
C. Tautology
D. Paradox
E. Mere assertion

18. According to Encountering the Real - Module 1: Logic and Critical Thinking what type of deductive argument is “if Aristotle keeps annoying people he’ll get in trouble; Aristotle won’t stop annoying people; therefore he’ll get in trouble?”
A. Categorical syllogism
B. Hypothetical syllogism
C. Modus tollens
D. Modus ponens
E. Reductio ad absurdum

19. According to Encountering the Real - Module 1: Logic and Critical Thinking what form of inference is “P; Q; therefore P and Q?”
A. Hypothetical syllogism
B. Simplification
C. Tautology
D. Conjunction
E. Addition

20. According to Encountering the Real - Module 1: Logic and Critical Thinking what type of fallacy is “whatever people desire, that is what is desirable?”
A. Changing meanings
B. Irrelevancies
C. Ad hominem arguments
D. Unclear or shifting conclusions
E. Mere assertion

21. According to Encountering the Real - Module 3: Classical Theistic Arguments what conclusion is drawn from the argument “the existence of the fine-tuning is not improbable under theism; the existence of the fine-tuning is very improbable under the atheistic single-universe hypothesis” presented by the author Collins?”
A. Preferring atheism over the probabilistic version of the theistic single-universe hypothesis is much stronger
B. Preferring theism over the probabilistic version of the atheistic single-universe hypothesis is much stronger
C. Preferring theism over the probabilistic version of the atheistic many-universe hypothesis is much stronger
D. Preferring atheism over the probabilistic version of the theistic many-universe hypothesis is much stronger
E. Preferring many-universe theism over the probabilistic version of the atheistic single-universe hypothesis is much stronger

22. According to Encountering the Real - Module 3: Classical Theistic Arguments what is the final conclusion derived by Rowe of the “Cosmological Argument?”
A. Although sound - it does provide good rational grounds for believing one’s whose existence is accounted for by its own nature
B. Although unsound - it does not provide good rational grounds for believing one’s whose existence is accounted for by its own nature
C. Although unsound - it does provide good rational grounds for believing one’s whose existence is accounted for by its own nature
D. Although sound – there are no rational grounds for believing one’s senses
E. Although sound - it does not provide good rational grounds for believing one’s whose existence is accounted for by its own nature

23. According to Encountering the Real - Module 3: Classical Theistic Arguments what is not within the Cosmological Argument (the first part) of Rowe?
A. There exist some dependent beings
B. There exists a self-existent being
C. Not every being can be a dependent being
D. Every being is a self-existent being
E. Not every being is a self-existent being

24. According to Encountering the Real - Module 3: Classical Theistic Arguments what “Way” is not one utilized by Saint Thomas Aquinas?
A. The efficient cause
B. Gradations found in the world
C. From notion
D. Governance of things
E.   From the possible and necessary

25. According to Encountering the Real - Module 3: Classical Theistic Arguments what is not a conclusion of Saint Anselm within the Ontological Argument?
A. There is no doubt something than which a greater cannot be thought exists in the understanding
B. The fool must admit something than which something greater can be thought exists at least in understanding
C. The fool must admit something than which something greater cannot be thought exists at least in understanding
D. There is no doubt something than which a greater cannot be thought exists in reality
E.   Surely that than which a greater cannot be thought cannot exist only in the understanding

26. According to Encountering the Real - Module 2: Evidentialism what is Clifford’s ultimate conclusion?
A. If man makes sufficient time to study and understand certain questions; then he should have no time to believe
B. If man makes no sufficient time to study and understand certain questions; then he should have time to believe
C. If man makes sufficient time to study and understand certain questions; then he should have time to believe
D. If man makes no sufficient time to study and understand certain questions; then he should have no time to believe
E.   Belief is of utmost importance and thought is not very reliable

27. According to Encountering the Real - Module 2: Evidentialism what is untrue of the ship owner?
A. He is an honest man with no guilt in the demise of the seafarers
B. He knew his ship was old
C. He convinced himself to believe the ship be seaworthy
D. He dismissed from his mind the suspicions of the builders and contractors
E.   He knew his ship had often needed repairs

ANTISTHENES - MAIN POINTS & READINGS
28. According to Diogenes Laërtius: The Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers Book VI: The Cynics: Life of Antisthenes “in order to hear Socrates, from whom he [Antisthenes] learnt the art of [what], and of being [what] to external circumstances, and so became the original founder of the Cynic school?”
A. Dialectic; sensitive
B. Rhetoric; compliant
C. Annoying; cognizant
D. Enduring; indifferent
E. Speaking; manipulative

29. According to Diogenes Laërtius: The Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers Book VI: The Cynics: Life of Antisthenes he [Antisthenes] stated “that those who wish to be immortal ought to live [how]?”
A. Piously; justly
B. Morally; materially
C. Logically; reverently
D. Rhetorically; logically
E. Reverantly; justly

30. According to Diogenes Laërtius: The Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers Book VI: The Cynics: Life of Antisthenes he [Antisthenes] stated “the wise man alone knew what…?”
A. Politicians deserved scorn
B. People were untrustworthy
C. The gods had in store for man
D. How the mind and soul were made
E. Objects deserved love

31. According to Diogenes Laërtius: The Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers Book VI: The Cynics: Life of Antisthenes he [Antisthenes] stated “[what] is the same in a man as in a woman?”
A. Vice
B. Contentment
C. Accomplishment
D. Honour
E. Virtue

32. According to Diogenes Laërtius: The Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers Book VI: The Cynics: Life of Antisthenes he [Antisthenes] stated “one should consider a just man as of more value than a [what]?”
A. Relation
B. Materials
C. Enemy
D. Money
E. Friend

33. According To Antisthenes virtue is all but what?
A. Rugged individualism
B. Independence of character
C. Conformity
D. Indifferent to externals
E. Strength of character

34. According to Antisthenes “the wise man will be guided in his public acts not by [what] but by the [what]?”
A. The law of virtue; the established laws
B. The established laws; law of virtue
C. The political establishment; laws of rhetoric
D. The philosophers; laws of reason
E. The gods; religious rites

SAINT AUGUSTINE & SAINT THOMAS AQUINAS - MAIN POINTS
35. According to Saint Augustine’s “What We Are To Believe” what group in specific does he speak against?
A. Protestants
B. Philosophers
C. Greeks
D. Poets
E. Government Officials

36. According to Saint Thomas Aquinas God is not only the “First Cause” of all motion He is also the “Concurrent Cause.” What does this mean?
A. God is Impotent & Omnipresent
B. God if Omniscient
C. God is Omniscient, Omnipotent & Omnipresent
D. God is Limited in power
E. God is Omnipotent

37. According to Saint Augustine what is the main way acceptable toward “Salvation?”
A. Cultivating your Intellect
B. The Bible
C. The Church
D. Reason
E. Faith

38. According to Saint Thomas Aquinas what is the “Potential” for existence of “Finite Things?”
A. The Material Substratum
B. The Human Soul
C. The Spiritual Realm
D. Independent Extra-Mental Forms
E. The Physical Realm

39. According to Saint Thomas Aquinas what is not representative of the existence of God?
A. Omnipotent
B. Demonstrable
C. Ineffable
D. Self-Evident to Reason
E. Omnipresent

40. Within Saint Augustine’s “What We Are To Believe” what is the main thrust of the excerpt?
A. Misunderstanding leads to Faith
B. Philosophical truth is equivalent to religious truth
C. Faith leads to Misunderstanding
D. Faith is of utmost importance
E. Faithlessness leads to Misunderstanding

41. According to Saint Thomas Aquinas where do “Ideas” exist?
A. In Things
B. In the Spiritual Realm
C. In the Physical Realm
D. As Independent Extra-Mental Forms
E. As Mental Abstractions

42. What is not a portion of the metaphysical “Augustinian Schema?”
A. Jesus
B. God the Son
C. God the Father
D. The Holy Spirit
E. Reason

43. What is not a portion of the corporeal “Augustinian Schema?”
A. Memory
B. Reason
C. Intellect
D. Will
E. Human Mind

SOCRATES – MAIN POINTS & EUTHYPHRO
44. According to Socrates what is intrinsically and extrinsically “far more valuable than opinion?”
A. Money
B. Intelligence
C. Material possessions
D. Knowledge
E. Justice

45. In Plato’s Euthyphro what “distinction fundamental in reasoning” is made by Socrates --- although Socrates and Euthyphro may not have defined the holy?
A. Things or actions are good because the gods approve
B. The forms are eternal and the gods approve of them
C. The holy is a science of asking and giving
D. Gods approve things or actions because they are good
E. Nothing is objectively good in its entirety

46. According to Socrates how are moral conventions (e.g. right vs. wrong, etc.) to be set?
A. Men within a society
B. The forms
C. The gods
D. Immortal soul
E. Eternal justice

47. In Plato’s Euthyphro Socrates states the way to begin “political activity aright.” What is it?
A. Petition the gods for approval
B. Discover the forms and quest the gods approval
C. Pay attention to the young - make them as good as possible
D. Petition the citizens of their thoughts on such matters
E. Seize political control and force the “right” thing to be done

48. In his opinion what is Socrates’ supreme duty?
A. Quest for knowledge (knowledge = virtue)
B. Quest for riches (wealth = virtue)
C. Quest for power (position = virtue)
D. Quest for the gods (heaven = virtue)
E. Quest for glory (adoration = virtue)

49. According to Socrates “[what] is not worth living?”
A. The physical life
B. The common life
C. The spiritual life
D. The pleasured life
E. The unexamined life

50. In Plato’s Euthyphro what is not a definition of “holy” - between Euthyphro and Socrates?
A. Prosecuting one who is guilty of murder
B. Pleasing the Gods by word and deed (i.e. Prayers and Sacrifices)
C. What the Gods Love
D. Doing what all the Gods like
E. A Science of asking and giving

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1. The answer is option D
2. The answer is option B
3. The answer is option C
4. The answer is option E
5. The answer is option B...

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