Question

Questions 1 to 20: Select the best answer to each question. Note that a question and its answers may be split across a page break, so be sure that you have seen the entire question and all the answers before choosing an answer.
1. If we compare and contrast, we find that psychological theories of deviance are most similar to
A. present-day genetic research that weighs environmental factors.
B. the body-type theories of William Sheldon.
C. biological models that embrace the medicalization of deviance.
D. the criminal-type theories of Cesare Lombroso.
2. Max Weber was concerned that the _______ of the modern world would suppress human creativity and dehumanize us.
A. competition
B. refuse
C. rationality
D. constitution
3. The most significant form of nonverbal communication is
A. posture.
B. eye contact.
C. facial expression.
D. intonation.
4. Regarding Sally Helgesen's characterization of what she called the "female advantage," which of the following statements is true?
A. Women managers aren't more concerned than men with maintaining their "image."
B. Women tend to deemphasize the interconnectedness of organizational operations.
C. Women aren't more inclined to value communication and promote shared knowledge.
D. Women managers typically don't give their employees more freedom.
5. With regard to problems generated by bureaucracies, _______ refers to the rule of the many by the few.
A. ritualism
B. oligarchy
C. inertia
D. alienation
6. Carmen is a nurse. Because she must offer her patients care, follow the medication schedule of the tending physician, and deal with the demands of the head nurse for her station, she's experiencing stress. A sociologist would refer to this kind of stress as
A. role conflict.
B. status set conflict.
C. role set ambiguity.
D. role strain.
7. Which of the following best describes the concept of demeanor?
A. The use of deceptive body language
B. Patterns of behavior indicating relative social power
C. Forcefully expressing one's point of view
D. The devaluation of feminine words, such as hostess
8. According to Arlie Russell Hochschild, in typical corporate and business environments managers and supervisors attempt to control employees'
A. behavior and emotions.
B. social life.
C. linguistic behavior.
D. inner narratives.
9. Regarding sexual violence, which of these statements is false?
A. In prisons, men who rape men are typically homosexual.
B. Rape is a violent expression of power aimed at humiliating and controlling the victim.
C. Perpetrators of date rape typically know or are acquainted with their victims.
D. The government's legal definition of rape presumes that the victim will be female.
10. Regarding premarital intercourse, which statement is true?
A. A slight majority of young people choose to remain abstinent prior to marriage.
B. About 30 percent of all high school students report four or more sexual partners.
C. Currently, the incidence of oral sex among adolescents is almost the same as the number reporting having actual intercourse.
D. Among baby boomers, the proportion of males and females who had premarital sex was about 50–50.
11. Within a global perspective, which one of the following statements is true?
A. Property crime rates are much higher in the United States than they are in Europe.
B. The widespread ownership of guns in the United States appears to have no impact on crime rates.
C. Violent crime rates are much higher in the United States than they are in Europe.
D. The American emphasis on individual financial success helps reduce crime rates.
12. Some researchers believe that, if a "gay gene" exists, it will be located on the
A. Y chromosome.
B. X or Y chromosome, but more often on the X chromosome.
C. X chromosome.
D. X or Y chromosome, but more often on the Y chromosome.
13. If you wish to better understand the way people make sense of their everyday social world, you would most likely be focusing on the study of
A. ethnomethodology.
B. street smarts.
C. reality theory.
D. the Thomas theorem.
14. Conflict theorist Stephen Spitzer maintains that in America the _______ system plays the central role in shaping attitudes about deviance.
A. legal
B. cultural
C. capitalist
D. social class
15. The German sociologist Georg Simmel would agree most with which of the following statements?
A. Members of large groups turn to fellow group members to form interpersonal relationships.
B. The smallest social group is the dyad.
C. In-groups tend to identify out-groups.
D. A network is a web of relatively weak relationships.
16. According to Amitai Etzioni, people will join a/an _________ organization to pursue some morally worthwhile goal.
A. utilitarian
B. informal
C. progressive
D. normative
17. According to the findings of the massive Laumann study, _______ of adults reported having engaged in intercourse only a few times over a year or not at all.
A. one-third
B. one-fourth
C. one-half
D. two-thirds
18. The Navajo view regards what type of people with awe because these people are seen as combining the power and potential of both males and females?
A. Female homosexual
B. Male homosexual
C. Transsexual
D. Intersexual
19. Alexander Liazos points out that people who may be labeled "nuts" or "sluts" are best characterized as
A. powerless.
B. unemployed.
C. harmful to others.
D. mentally unstable.
20. Because Shane wants to make people laugh, he'll find clever ways to contrast
A. factual and consequential realities.
B. conventional and unconventional realities.
C. true and false realities.
D. factual and conventional realities.

Questions 1 to 20: Select the best answer to each question. Note that a question and its answers may be split across a page break, so be sure that you have seen the entire question and all the answers before choosing an answer.
1. In Margaret Mead's study of three New Guinea tribal cultures, she found that the Tchambuli were different from the Arapesh and Mundugumor in which of the following ways?
A. "Masculine" traits were expected of women and "feminine" traits characterized men.
B. Men and women shared many of the same gender traits.
C. Gender roles were adopted indiscriminately by both men and women.
D. Both men and women displayed hostile and aggressive attitudes.
2. Which of the following places has the highest concentration of White Anglo-Saxon Protestants (WASPs)?
A. Idaho
B. Scotland and Wales
C. Utah
D. Jamestown, Virginia
3. A class system is based on _______, whereas a caste system is stratification based on _______.
A. ascription and achievement; ascription
B. capitalism; birth
C. individualism; collectivism
D. either ascription or achievement; birth
4. Under globalization, the greatest reduction in poverty has occurred in
A. South Africa.
B. Latin America.
C. Mexico.
D. Asia.
5. The social construct of race is to _______ traits as the social construct of ethnicity is to _______ traits.
A. genetic; minority
B. biological; cultural
C. genetic; cultural
D. biological; minority
6. Taking a global perspective, if you take the view that affluence, not poverty, requires explanation, then chances are you espouse
A. dependency theory.
B. modernization theory.
C. the core-peripheral distinction among nations.
D. conflict theory.
7. Regarding gender socialization in Western cultures, the female world seems to emphasize cooperation and ______, whereas the male world seems to emphasize _______ and action.
A. sharing; competition
B. sharing; independence
C. emotion; competition
D. emotion; independence
8. Under the Russian Federation that succeeded the Soviet Union, large numbers of people experienced radical shifts in social mobility. Sociologists refer to this sort of phenomenon as _______ social mobility.
A. functional
B. dysfunctional
C. individualistic
D. structural
9. Oscar Lewis argued that poor people tend to be trapped in
A. poverty, due to victim blaming.
B. cycles of achievement and despair.
C. dead-end occupations.
D. a culture of poverty.
10. The concept of prejudice is directly related to
A. social closeness.
B. socializing.
C. nonjudgment.
D. stereotyping.
11. Classes are harder to define than castes because _______ is present in class systems.
A. status prestige variation
B. status inconsistency
C. role flexibility
D. racism
12. Regarding poverty in the United States, which statement is true?
A. The weight of poverty falls most heavily on children and young adults.
B. Households headed by single men are at high risk for poverty.
C. The highest poverty rates are found in isolated rural areas.
D. Poverty is highly concentrated in suburban centers.
13. Which of the following countries would be considered a middle-income country?
A. Brazil
B. Russian Federation
C. Canada
D. Sudan
14. Sociologists apply the concept of socioeconomic status (SES) to their analyses of social class differences. This SES concept reflects the views on stratification proposed by
A. Karl Marx.
B. Davis and Moore.
C. Max Weber.
D. Adam Smith.
15. At least in the United States, what is the main reason women earn less pay than men?
A. The type of work they do
B. Discrimination against women
C. Male expectations regarding pay
D. Family responsibilities
16. According to Anti-Slavery International (ASI), which of the following statements is true?
A. Debt bondage is a form of slavery.
B. Human trafficking is the most common form of slavery.
C. In every condition of slavery, people are owned by other people.
D. Child slavery is mainly found in middle-income countries.
17. In the Middle Ages in Europe, the legal concept of primogeniture applied primarily to the _______ estate.
A. first
B. second
C. fourth
D. third
18. Regarding gender and education, which of the following statements is true?
A. In 2008, women earned 50 percent of all master's degrees.
B. The majority of doctors are now women.
C. The majority of lawyers are now women.
D. As of 1992, women earned a majority of post-graduate degrees.
19. If you agree that capitalism fosters and strengthens male domination, chances are that you embrace the _______ perspective.
A. structural-functional
B. dependency
C. symbolic-interaction
D. social-conflict
20. According to your text, if your family income is between $27,000 and $48,000 a year, you would be classified as
A. middle class.
B. upper-middle class.
C. lower-middle class.
D. average middle class.

Questions 1 to 20: Select the best answer to each question. Note that a question and its answers may be split across a page break, so be sure that you have seen the entire question and all the answers before choosing an answer.
1. Which of the following is a principle of the holistic approach to medicine?
A. Adopt the spirit of euthanasia in the treatment of terminal disease.
B. Emphasize the importance of medication to treat illnesses.
C. Encourage patient responsibility for self-diagnosis.
D. Treat patients as people.
2. Which four factors were responsible for making the economy a distinct social institution?
A. Stratification, industrial technology, manufacturing and mass production, and improved workplace safety
B. Literacy and mechanical skills, centralization of work in factories, improved workplace safety, and extended schooling
C. Agricultural technology, specialized work, permanent settlements, and trade
D. Wage labors, specializations, manufacturing and mass production, and new sources of energy
3. In Japan and South Korea, privately owned companies cooperate closely with government in an economic–political system called _______ capitalism.
A. state
B. welfare
C. cooperative
D. socialist
4. In the United States, declining worker membership in unions mainly reflects
A. the decline of service-sector employment.
B. a shrinking industrial sector.
C. a shift to primary-sector production.
D. the decline of wage labor.
5. Which of the following statements is most consistent with sociological findings?
A. Divorce rates are rising among those who do not attend college.
B. In today's economy, women are increasingly dependent on their husband's income.
C. Individualism is generally associated with family violence.
D. The vast majority of divorced fathers faithfully fulfill their child-support obligations.
6. In the view of Robert Bellah, a quasi-religious loyalty that binds individuals in a basically secular society may be thought of as
A. popular religion.
B. sham religiosity.
C. civil religion.
D. conservative religiosity.
7. In the structural-functional perspective, which of the following would be considered a latent function of education?
A. Child care
B. Cultural innovation
C. Social placement
D. Social integration
8. The pluralist theory of the distribution of power is linked most closely to the _______ perspective.
A. structural-functional
B. sociobiological
C. conflict
D. symbolic-interaction
9. Regarding eating disorders and obesity, which of the following statements is true?
A. Most who suffer from anorexia nervosa are from working-class families.
B. About 60 percent of white women are afflicted with an eating disorder.
C. Obesity is increasing even though meals are getting smaller.
D. Obesity is the most serious of the eating-related disorders.
10. Which of the following statements is a characteristic particular to the postindustrial economy?
A. Specialization characterizes the division of labor.
B. Mechanical skills are replaced by literacy skills.
C. Manufacturing and mass production proliferate.
D. New sources of energy are exploited.
11. The structural-functional, macro-level approach specifies _______ as a function of the family.
A. property inheritance
B. socializing
C. material and emotional security
D. ethnic solidarity
12. In her research, Lillian Rubin interviewed working-class and middle-class wives. She found that middleclass wives typically defined a good husband as someone who
A. didn't drink too much.
B. had a steady job.
C. could share feelings.
D. wasn't violent.
13. In his critique of American education, James Coleman referred to the importance of families who read to their children, value learning, and encourage imagination. What did Coleman call these valuable characteristics of family life?
A. Social capital
B. Intellectual infrastructure
C. Family infrastructure
D. Cultural capital
14. Industrialization and democracy often fit together because both require
A. free trade and competition.
B. cooperation and competition.
C. a literate populace.
D. a compliant populace.
15. Regarding problems in American schools, which of the following statements is true?
A. Most observers feel that schools are effective in promoting discipline.
B. In most cases, the conditions within schools encourage violence.
C. The bureaucratic structure of schools promotes student passivity.
D. The passivity common in secondary schools isn't found in college classrooms.
16. Which of the following is true in the United States?
A. Monopolies are legal.
B. Interlocking directorates are illegal.
C. Oligopolies are legal.
D. Conglomerates are considered unethical.
17. John Dewey, an American philosopher of education, argued in favor of what he called progressive education. How does Dewey define progressive education?
A. Schooling should be practical and relevant to students' lives.
B. Schooling should teach students to think independently and question authority.
C. Students should progress from grade to grade based on scholastic achievement.
D. Students' progress should be evaluated through periodic testing.
18. For Émile Durkheim, distinguishing the _______ from the _______ is the essence of religious belief.
A. parent; child
B. sacred; profane
C. spiritual; physical
D. true; false
19. According to your text, which of the following is an outstanding feature of revolution?
A. Moral objectives
B. The absence of alternatives
C. Perceived external threats
D. Rising expectations
20. Around the world, according to the World Health Organization, _______ in _______ people suffer from serious illness resulting from poverty.
A. 1; 10
B. 2; 6
C. 6; 100
D. 1; 6

Questions 1 to 20: Select the best answer to each question. Note that a question and its answers may be split across a page break, so be sure that you have seen the entire question and all the answers before choosing an answer.
1. Durkheim maintained that industrial societies were held together by _______ solidarity.
A. organic
B. corporate
C. community
D. mechanical
2. If you agree with the views of Marx and Engels, you would most likely agree with which of the following statements?
A. Modernity is characterized by functional stratification.
B. Naked self-interest is human nature.
C. Modern capitalist societies worship technology but despise science.
D. Capitalism treats people as commodities.
3. A woman may bear 20 children during her childbearing years in terms of _______. However, actual _________ is limited by various cultural and environmental constraints.
A. fertility; fecundity
B. demography; fertility
C. demography; fecundity
D. fecundity; fertility
4. To attain an ecologically sustainable global society, which of the following measures proposed in your text most directly requires a shift in self-perception?
A. We must revise egocentric worldviews.
B. We must control population growth.
C. We must reduce waste.
D. We must conserve finite resources.
5. Sir Thomas Malthus's most relevant lesson for us today is that
A. food production can increase at only an arithmetic rate.
B. land, water, and other resources are limited.
C. modern reproductive technology has had no detectable effect on population growth.
D. population increase is invariably geometric.
6. What is the main reason that the sex ratio is usually below 100?
A. On average, women live longer than men.
B. Men are more likely to die in infancy.
C. One hundred percent is a logical limit.
D. On average, men live longer than women.
7. Regarding modernity, you would be correct if you associate "disenchantment" with the work of
A. Max Weber.
B. Ferdinand Tönnies.
C. Karl Marx.
D. Emile Durkheim.
8. For Peter Berger, modern societies are characterized by
A. the rise of traditional communities.
B. the contraction of personal choice.
C. increasing social diversity.
D. a decreasing awareness of time.
9. In many urban areas and on Indian reservations, poor people, many of whom are minorities, have been exposed to hazardous industrial waste. This social phenomenon is referred to as
A. environmental discrimination.
B. environmental racism.
C. residential racism.
D. residential discrimination.
10. In the formula I = PAT, I stands for _______, P stands for population, A stand for _______, and T stands for technology.
A. impact; affluence
B. incidence; atmosphere
C. impact; atmosphere
D. incidence; affluence
11. The theory that argues social movements result when socially isolated people are attracted to a common cause that offers them social identity is the _______ theory.
A. resource mobilization
B. relative-deprivation
C. culture
D. mass-society
12. Max Weber traced the roots of most social movements to changes in
A. economic conditions.
B. culture.
C. population demographics.
D. ideas.
13. Social ties have been weakened by bureaucracy and prosperity in what structural-functionalists call a/an _______ society,
A. modern
B. attenuated
C. mass
D. anomic
14. Jacob is keen to adopt the latest fashions and is often inclined to imitate role models who appear to be "in the know." David Riesman would probably characterize Jacob as being
A. inner-directed.
B. extroverted.
C. introverted.
D. other-directed.
15. According to the textbook, the first of the four typical stages of a social movement is
A. coalescence.
B. emergence.
C. the definition of a social problem.
D. the detection of a social problem.
16. The infant mortality rate is the number of deaths of children under _______ year(s) of age per 1,000 live births per year.
A. one
B. one and a half
C. two
D. two and a half
17. According to data cited in your text, the concentration of carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere is _______ percent higher now than it was 150 years ago.
A. 10
B. 40
C. 60
D. 0.5
18. Which of the following kinds of environmental problems is irreversible?
A. Water pollution
B. Extremely high atmospheric carbon dioxide levels
C. Species extinction
D. Polar ice pack melting
19. Say that the spokespeople for the "Human Wellness" movement succeed in changing the attitudes and opinions of the public and key public officials. In the context of social movements and social change, this process is called
A. dynamic persuasion.
B. claims making.
C. case making.
D. rational persuasion.
20. With respect to a specified territory, the difference between emigration and immigration for every 1,000 people per year is called the _______ migration rate.
A. crude
B. cumulative
C. specific
D. net

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1. If we compare and contrast, we find that psychological theories of deviance are most similar to
A. present-day genetic research that weighs environmental factors.
B. the body-type theories of William Sheldon.
C. biological models that embrace the medicalization of deviance.
D. the criminal-type theories of Cesare Lombroso.

Answer: C...

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