Question #1. A rational adaptation perspective, for present purposes, predicts that organizations and other social groups act out of rational self-interest. Consider the emergence of the culture of shareholder value in the U.S. in the 1980s, as explained in the Heilbron/Verheul/Quak article.

a) Explain whom a rational adaptation perspective would have predicted would have been the initial advocates of shareholder value culture, and why.
b) Explain why the group you identify in part a) was not the initial advocate of shareholder value culture in the U.S., but only began supporting it later.

For the sake of clarity, separate your response into parts a) and b)

Question #2. One of the implications of a culture of shareholder value is that it elevates the importance of share price as a metric, relative to profit, per se. Explain how the specific case of Enron Oil—the “canary in the coal mine” episode within Enron—demonstrates behavior driven by a prioritization of share price over profit. Your response should contain enough specifics to demonstrate understanding of the issue.

Question #3. The “Swapping Our Future” report reveals ways in which the University's actions are oriented toward the financial community. Explain what this means in terms of:
a) Universities cultural/cognitive understanding of its most important priorities; and
b) consequently, University's organizational practices.
For the sake of clarity, separate your response into parts a) and b).

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The Rational Adaptation Perspective speaks to the fact that organizations just as individuals subscribe to the dictates of self-interest. The selfish motives manifest both overtly and covertly and they impact the individual behavior of the individuals as well as aggregate organizations.
The 1980’s was the pinnacle of such behavior as organizations such as, but not limited to; Heilbron, Verheul and Quak violated the ideology of their organizational visions and missions to attend to the dictates of Rational Adaptation to pursue selfish interest by manipulating shareholder value by insisting that the value of their organizational stock was more that its’ value was in actuality. Many of the major players within the organization purchased the shares to motivate other buyers. This tactic worked and caused a mad rush of buyers who were interested in the purchase of shares which possessed only a fraction of the value as documented publicly...
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