1. Discuss the process and provide concrete examples of forms of social exclusion that affect social stratification. Explain the significance of this statement from the text: "In considering the phenomenon of social exclusion we must once again be conscious of the interaction between human agency and responsibility on the one hand, and the role of social forces in shaping people's circumstances on the other hand."
2. How do traditional gender roles regarding housework and the raising of children affect women's employment status? How do these roles affect their life choices and living conditions? be sure to discuss the concept of the second shift.
3. Discuss the influence of nature and nurture in the formation of gender identities. What are the arguments that biology primarily shapes gender? What are the sociological views on gender socialization? Summarize your conclusions about this fundamental question regarding gender.
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1. Social stratification is the hierarchal ranking of social classes, grouped by similar socioeconomic conditions, within a society. Marx argued that two classes of people existed, the bourgeoisie and the proletariat. The bourgeoisie own the means of production, the capital, and, in capitalist societies, exploit the proletariat who work. The bourgeoisie pay the proletariat enough for food and housing, while the proletariat, who are unaware of the exploitation, develop a false consciousness in that they feel well off and rely on the bourgeoisie to continue to provide for them. Marx hypothesized that eventually the proletariat would rise up in revolt, crushing the bourgeoisie. This revolution would lead to the proletariat controlling the means of production. Class levels would no longer exist, because everything would be owned by everyone equally. This type of society would be communist.
Weber, who agreed with Marx that hierarchal differences in social classes do exist, did not agree with how social classes are created nor did he agree that society would eventually become communist. He argued that not just what people owned determined social class. Instead of two social classes, Weber proposed four: the upper class, the white collar workers...
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