Define affirmative action and describe the two views: reverse discrimination/racism and undoing discrimination/racism. How effective have affirmative action policies been for African Americans? For women? Should affirmative action policies be abolished or continued? Why? Are there other alternatives to equal opportunity?

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Affirmative action can be envisaged to mean all activities and/or efforts that are geared towards correcting historic injustices and discrimination meted out on ethnic minorities, women, and other special need or underrepresented groups. Underrepresented groups could be old people, war veterans, the blind, or any other person who cannot fully represent themselves due to physical challenges or disability. Affirmative action happens in terms of legislation and laying of institutionalized policy framework that is aimed at leveling the playground to capture special needs of these underrepresented groups...

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