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INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
Concept Sheet

Micro-level orientation: A close up focus on social interaction in specific situations.
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Symbolic-interaction Approach: A framework for building theory that sees society as the product of the everyday interactions of individuals.
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Stereotype: A simplified description applied to every person in some category.
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Science A logical system that bases knowledge on direct, systematic observation.
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Empirical Evidence: Information we can verify with our senses
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Positivist sociology: The study of society based on systematic observation of social behavior.
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Concept: A mental construct that represents some part of the world in a simplified form.
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Variable: A concept whose value changes from case to case.
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Measurement: A procedure for determining the value of a variable in a specific case.
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Operationalize a variable: Specifying exactly what is to be measured before assigning a value to a variable.
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Reliability: Consistency in measurement.
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Validity: Actually measuring exactly what you intend to measure.
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Cause and effect: A relation in which change in one variable cause change in another.
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Independent variable: The variable that causes the change.
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Dependent variable: The variable that changes.
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Correlation: A relationship in which two (or more) variables change together.
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Spurious correlation: An apparent but false relationship between two (or more) variables that is caused by some other variable.
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Control: Holding constant all variables except one to see clearly the effect of that variable.
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ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTION IN ONLY 3-5 SENTENCES.
Critical Thinking Write up
1) Explain why none of the major methods of sociology research-experiment, survey and observation is better than any other in an absolute sense but each is suitable for examining different kinds of questions and research situation.

Seeing Sociology in Your Everyday Life
1) Research studies demonstrate that friendship means more to people than we might think. Recall Emile Durkheim’s study on suicide. How did he use sociological research to uncover more about the importance of relationships? Which one of the research methods did he use in his study of suicide?

2) Sociology involves more than a distinctive perspective and theoretical approaches. The discipline is also about learning-gaining more information about the operation of society all around us. It’s possible that you will go on to study more sociology and you might even end up doing sociological research. But there is value in knowing how to carry out a sounds research project even if you never do it yourself. The value of such knowledge lies in this; in a society that feeds us a study diet of information, knowing how to gather accurate information gives you the skills to assess what you read. The next time you hear someone perhaps a candidate running for political office making a claim about some issue, why not see if you can find existing data and assess the truth of the claim for yourself?

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INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
Concept Sheet
Micro-level orientation: A close up focus on social interaction in specific situations. It focuses on small details of the day-to-day activities and situations within a social institution, including originations and other institutions like families.
Symbolic-interaction Approach: A framework for building theory that sees society as the product of the everyday interactions of individuals. Under this approach, communication, which is the exchange of the meanings through symbols and language, is considered the best way through which individuals in a society make sense of their social world.
Stereotype: A simplified description applied to every person in some category. It is the general expectation or perception that a group of individuals or an individual might have about members of another social group.
Science A logical system that bases knowledge on direct, systematic observation. Most scientists believe in systematically building and organizing acquired knowledge in the form of testable predictions and explanations regarding the universe.
Empirical Evidence: Information we can verify with our senses. In most cases, empirical evidence is the kind of information that people acquire through the means of senses, especially the documentation of behavior and...

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