Questions 1 to 40: Select the best answer to each question.

1. .... is a form of social organization in which females dominate males.
A. Gerontocracy
B. Monarchy
C. Matriarchy
D. Patriarchy

2. In global perspective, which of the following statements about prostitution is true?
A. It's most common in Middle Eastern countries such as Saudi Arabia, where women have fewest choices about their lives.
B. It's most common in high-income nations, where women are free to choose their profession.
C. It's most common in low-income nations, where women have fewer economic opportunities.
D. It's found in every country in about the same degree.

3. The postindustrial economy is defined by
A. the spread of factories.
B.manufacturing of raw materials.
C. working with symbols rather than just material things.
D. mass production of goods.
4. Criminal statistics gathered by the Federal Bureau of Investigation reflect
A. only offenses known to the police.
B. all crimes that take place.
C. only offenses cleared by arrest.
D. only offenses resulting in a criminal conviction.

5. A family unit that includes parents and children, as well as other kin, is called a/an
A. nuclear family.
B. family of affinity.
C. extended family.
D. conjugal family.

6. Which of the following concepts refers to the beliefs, values, behavior, and material objects that together constitute a people's way of life?
A. Culture
B. Social system
C. Society
D. Social structure

7. The observation that many familiar aspects of U.S. culture came from other lands was made by
A. Ralph Linton.
B. Peter Berger.
C. Max Weber.
D. Margaret Mead.

8. The radiation leak at the Fukushima Daiichi in 2011 is one example of
A. an act of terrorism.
B. a technological disaster.
C. an intentional disaster.
D. a natural disaster.

9. Edwin Lemert described primary deviance as
A. actions that parents or other family members define as seriously deviant.
B. a passing episode of deviance that has little effect on the person's self-concept.
C. the most serious episodes of deviance.
D. the experience of deviance early in life.

10. Which of the following concepts refers to a rigid and irrational generalization about an entire category of people?
A. Prejudice
B. Scapegoating
C. Racism
D. Discrimination

11. In her research, Elisabeth K├╝bler-Ross found that death
A. is something we must all learn to resist.
B. is an orderly transition involving specific stages.
C. is defined in much the same way by people throughout history.
D. is one topic that people in the United States have always discussed often and openly.

12. In terms of his sexuality, Mark has always felt that he is "trapped in the wrong body." This feeling suggests that Mark is in which of the following categories of people?
A. Intersexual people
B. Homosexual people
C. Bisexual people
D. Transsexual people

13. Ritual is a matter of
A. whom you socialize with.
B. song and dance.
C. beliefs.
D. formal, ceremonial behavior.

14. Research on extramarital sex shows that about .... percent of married men and about percent of married women remain faithful to their spouses throughout their married lives.
A. 50; 75
B. 25; 40
C. 75; 90
D. 75; 50

15. ...... studies the variable meanings that people attach to everyday behavior, including sexuality.
A. The structural-functional approach
B. The social-conflict approach
C. The symbolic-interaction approach
D. Queer theory

16. Jake is a member of the Bulldogs soccer team. His team's main rival is the Tigers. Members of the Bulldogs put down the Tigers all the time. To Jake, the Tigers represent
A. a reference group.
B. an in-group.
C. an out-group.
D. a network.

17. According to the capitalist world economy theory, which nations form the core of the world economy?
A. Low-income nations
B. Middle-income nations
C. All nations operate as the core.
D. High-income nations

18. Turning metals into automobiles is work that falls within the economy's ..... sector.
A. primary
B. tertiary
C. secondary
D. postindustrial

19. Harold and Sybil are lost, and despite Sybil's insistence, Harold refuses to stop and ask for directions. This example shows that
A. men and women always attach the same meaning to everyday experiences.
B. men avoid asking for directions because asking for help makes them dependent on others.
C. men do not mind getting lost.
D. men are more interested in "connectedness" than women are.

20. Wrong-doing such as an adult forcing a child to engage in sexual activity is an example of violating our culture's
A. beliefs.
B. symbols.
C. mores.
D. folkways.

21. Which of the following is not a trait of religious fundamentalism?
A. Endorsing conservative political goals
B. Interpreting religious texts literally
C. Accepting religious pluralism
D. Seeking the personal experience of God's presence

22. In observing children at play, Janet Lever concluded that
A. gender has little effect on young children before the age of eight or ten.
B. boys favor games with clear winners and losers.
C. play is one part of children's lives that gender does not seem to affect.
D. boys favor games that develop communication and cooperation.

23. Human beings' basic drives, or needs, are reflected in Freud's concept of
A. superego.
B. generalized other.
C. ego.
D. id.

24. Charles Horton Cooley referred to a small social group whose members share personal and enduring relationships as a/an
A. primary group.
B. secondary group.
C. instrumental group.
D. expressive group.

25. According to Robert Merton's strain theory, which of the following concepts correctly describes people, including alcoholics and drug addicts, who "drop out" of society?
A. Innovator
B. Rebel
C. Ritualist
D. Retreatist

26. A minority is defined as a category of people who are
A. less than half the total population.
B. different from the majority in terms of culture.
C. different in some visible way and also socially disadvantaged.
D. new to a country and also socially disadvantaged.

27. Talcott Parsons claimed that society responds to illness by
A. punishing ill people.
B. withholding treatment to those people who need it most.
C. providing the "sick role."
D. forcing sick people to keep on working.

28. In the United States, family violence is
A. considered a private family matter.
B. harmful to both sexes, but not equally.
C. no longer considered as serious an issue as it was in past decades.
D. mostly harmful to men.

29. Demography is defined as the study of
A. the physical environment.
B. democratic politics.
C. human culture.
D. human population.

30. According to the structural-functional approach, the family
A. operates to perpetuate economic inequality.
B. might be called the backbone of society.
C. isn't necessary for a society to operate.
D. is a system to maintain the dominance of some racial categories over others.

31. Gender refers to which of the following?
A. Only whether people are male or female
B. The secondary sex characteristics of men and women
C. Personal traits and social positions that society attaches to being female or male
D. People's sexual orientation

32. Max Weber defined power as
A. the legitimate operation of government.
B. the ability to achieve desired ends, despite resistance from others.
C. the legitimate operation of bureaucracy.
D. simply a reflection of wealth.

33. Jane Elliott's "blue eyes/brown eyes" experiment in her Iowa classroom confirmed
A. that most students care little about what teachers think of them.
B. that most do not study what they're interested in.
C. the self-fulfilling prophecy by which students perform to meet the expectations of teachers.
D. the value of tracking.

34. Recent research on social distance among U.S. college students shows that
A. students are more accepting of minorities than they were decades ago.
B. students are least accepting of African Americans.
C. students see more and more difference among various minorities.
D. there is a trend toward less acceptance of minorities.

35. If you wanted to recruit people to join a feminist organization, you would expect to have the most positive response from
A. immigrants.
B. whites.
C. Hispanics.
D. African Americans.

36. While prejudice is a matter of ...., discrimination is a matter of                      .
A. biology; culture
B. attitudes; action
C. choice; social structure
D. abnormality; what a society considers normal

37. The text gives several reasons that a socialist revolution didn't take place as Karl Marx predicted. Which of the following statements is not one of the reasons given in the text?
A. Living standards have risen over time.
B. Stock places ownership of companies in the hands of tens of millions of people.
C. The law affords workers far greater legal protection.
D. There's no longer any concentration of wealth in our society.

38. The concept of endogamy refers to marriage between
A. people of different racial categories.
B. people of the same social category.
C. people of the same sex.
D. people who were married at least once before.

39. Social stratification is a concept that refers to
A. society ranking categories of people in a hierarchy.
B. the idea that all people are created equal.
C. differences in people's individual ability.
D. specialization in productive work.

40. The tragic case of Anna, the isolated girl studied by Kingsley Davis, shows that
A. personality is present in humans at birth.
B. many human instincts appear but only after the first few years of life.
C. without social experience, a child is incapable of thought or meaningful action.
D. humans have most of the same instincts found in other animal species.

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Question 1: The answer is option C.
Question 2: The answer is option C.
Question 3: The answer is option C.
Question 4: The answer is option A.
Question 5: The answer is option C....
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