Your working bibliography should have a minimum of seven entries.
Using what you have found, type up an outline of what you expect to be putting together for your paper. An outline is an important step in writing: it helps to organize thoughts by topic, and its linear form aids in transitioning from one topic to the next. It also gives a writer a template to follow when writing a draft. Consult the online database for suggestions and examples (or any internet tool: use key word “topic outline”).
These solutions may offer step-by-step problem-solving explanations or good writing examples that include modern styles of formatting and construction of bibliographies out of text citations and references. Students may use these solutions for personal skill-building and practice. Unethical use is strictly forbidden.Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, and, to a lesser extent, messaging apps like WhatsApp, have together transformed the way we interact and the ways in which we consume information; this is the social media age. We have also witnessed the rise of what has been labeled by some as the post-fact or post-truth era. Specifically, however, this paper is concerned with the common and widespread phenomenon of patently false information being believed and spread by large numbers of people. This paper’s thesis is that the designs of these social media platforms come together with aspects of the human psyche to catalyze the spread of falsehoods, often with disastrous consequences. A driving assumption of this argument is that, in such dire circumstances, social media platforms do not fail but rather operate precisely as designed and catalyze and exacerbate (rather than cause) social strife. Much of this argument will be concerned with a recent example of such social strife, with support from recent empirical research.
Platforms working as designed
As Geltzer points out, it is “standard fare” (2018, para. 2) for nefarious exploits of social media platforms to be described in precisely those sorts of terms: manipulation, abuse, etc. When “Russia manipulates elections via Facebook, or ISIS recruits followers on Twitter, or racist landlords [on Airbnb] deny rentals” (para. 2) based on race, both the media and the involved companies’ own executives proclaim that such actions as outside the norm – and, thus, somehow outside the intent of the platforms’ creators and outside the platforms’ proper functioning. While Geltzer does not put it in these terms, the implication—particularly from company executives and, less so, from less-than-tech-savvy members of the media—is that what occurs is akin to hacking, i.e. of a kind with a forcible breach in a system’s defenses, but, in this case, what is breached is a system’s norms of use. Geltzer’s argument is that this implication is, in the case of the media, mistaken, and, in the case of executives, likely expedient and disingenuous.
In the case of Twitter and ISIS, for example, the terrorist group made full use of the service’s core functionality and design intent, i.e. to facilitate the immediate, global spread of thoughts and ideas. Twitter banned ISIS, but such...
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