Write a ten page paper on the topic of Profiling - namely how profi...

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Write a ten page paper on the topic of Profiling - namely how profiling is performed in America and in China. For America, chose Mark Zuckerberg's new Social Graph algorithm as a subtopic. As for China, chose it's Social Credit system as a subtopic.

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Social networks have significantly transformed communication, information, exchange, and interpersonal relationships. Leading social networking sites such as Facebook and Twitter, have brought together millions of users from all parts of the world by providing vast platforms for information aggregation and mapping users based on shared interests, activities, professions, and other interpersonal characteristics. French and Browne (2014) observe that the increasing popularity of these networking sites and online media have facilitated surveillance and profiling users’ social and economic behaviors by corporations and governments. In the United States, Facebook’s Social Graph Algorithm emerges as a crucial tool for social surveillance and profiling users according to purchasing behaviors, interests, social circles, and location. Similarly, China is gradually finalizing its “Social Credit” system, a social surveillance program aimed at analyzing citizens’ behaviors, social and economic responsibilities, as well as, rank appropriate citizenry behaviors. In these countries, internet, computer algorithms, and social networking sites have emerged as data compilers of citizens’ personal information such as online contents, relationships, political beliefs, and psychosocial characteristics.
Zuckerberg’s Social Graph Algorithm
Robb (2017) defines Facebook’s social graph as an analytical algorithm that identifies and draws an edge between one Facebook user and the people, objects, and places they interact or relate to online. An edge, according to Dickinson (2012), is an attribute connecting one Facebook user to the other – it is a map of shared interests, places, items, and people. The algorithm connects all individuals with shared ‘edges’ or interests to create a data structure that accurately define an individual's social and economic behavior.
The social graph identifies the identity of an individual – expressly facilitated by the multiple pictures shared and uploaded to the Facebook account – interests, address, relationship status, and age. In addition to the personal information of a user, the algorithm allows Facebook administrators to profile a user according to social interests such as hobbies and sports, identify an individual’s daily schedules – workplace commitments, promotions, responsibilities, travels, and leisure. The algorithm also tracks a user’s internet behaviors including keeping records of favorite sites and popular downloads, as well as, music and video preferences. The data compiled using the algorithm has immense benefits to Facebook administrators because it corporates can purchase the information for use in advertisements and projecting consumer behaviors.
Stucke and Ezrachi (2018) observe that data generated from these sites have immense benefits to the government. In the United States, the prevailing terrorist threats, mass shooting, and other criminal behaviors necessitate the development of a defensive security mechanism with the capacity to detect and deal with potential threats before execution. Government surveillance – an NSA obligation in the United States – requires the collaboration of social...

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