There are beliefs based on our direct experience with the world, an...

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There are beliefs based on our direct experience with the world, and there are beliefs based on what other people tell us about the world. (Let's call the first "direct belief" and the second "indirect belief.") In both cases, an individual is responsible for the original formation of a false belief. But, when it comes to explaining how the false belief persist and spreads, the difference matters. An individual IS mostly responsible for the persistence and spread of DIRECT beliefs, but NOT mostly responsible for the persistence and spread INDIRECT beliefs.
In this second case, "social effects" deny the individual the opportunity to realize that the indirect belief is, in fact, false.
The authors describe the opportunity to realize that a belief is false as one where "the world pushes back."
You might think that X was safe based on your direct experience, and when you later experience X cause great harm, this "push back" is an opportunity to realize that your idea of X was false.
BUT if you formed the belief that X was safe based on the "testimony of others" and then these others tell you nothing that contradicts this, there is no "push back" -- and this "social effect" is then responsible for the persistence and spread of false indirect belief.
The authors may have committed the Fallacy of Missing the Point. To be specific: The conclusion about individuals not being responsible for the persistence and spread of false beliefs because they rely on what they hear from others misses the point of the premise about beliefs also being formed by what is heard from others.
Based on The Fallacy of Missing the Point, please argue a “prosecution” or a “defense” of the authors.If prosecuting them, explain in detail why the premise is actually relevant to the conclusion.If defending them, explain in detail why the premise is notrelevant to the conclusion. Support your argument with examples from the book and real life.

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The conclusion that individuals are not responsible for the persistence and spread of false beliefs because they rely on what they hear from others falls within the domain of the fallacy of missing the point. The authors draw an irrelevant conclusion because they are ignorant of the nature of refutation. First, the authors assume that the premise of how indirect beliefs are formed is not associated with how false beliefs persist and spread (O’Conner & Weatherall, 2018). However, this assumption is inherently fallacious. If false beliefs can be formed based on the testimony of others, they can...

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