Motor Development Paper Guidelines/Evaluatior (90)
It is important to remember that you are investigating a topic. You have hypothesized what you think you will find. The goal of the paper is to find research studies that either support or reject your hypothesis.
Title Page/Running Head (2)
Concise statement of the main topic
Identification of variables or issues and/or relationships between them
Running head which is an abbreviated title printed at the top of all the pages
Questions, lines of inquiry, hypothesis
Readable, well-organized, brief (no more than 120 words), and self-contained
Accurate - reflects purpose and content (compares with outline headings)
Concise and specific; each sentence maximally informative
Report rather than evaluate, no comments
Table of Contents (2) -
Listed by topic-headings
All pages are numbered
Body of Paper (40)
Must be a minimum of 10 pages double-spaced without the title, abstract, table of contents or references APA Format (4)
- Spacing, margins, center heads, side heads etc.
- State the problem (relevance, importance) (1)
- Identify what has been written and personal interest (2)
- state the purpose and rationale and end with your hypothesis (2)
- hypothesis (3)
Clearly stated (What do you think you are going to discover? It is OK if you do or don't find what you are expecting)
Research Support (20)
This material may consist of step-by-step explanations on how to solve a problem or examples of proper writing, including the use of citations, references, bibliographies, and formatting. This material is made available for the sole purpose of studying and learning - misuse is strictly forbidden.Introduction
ADHD is a psychiatric disorder which affects about 3-7% of school-age children in the United States (Gapin et al., 2011, p. 2). ADHD is characterized by a deficit in executive function along a number of dimensions – current treatment regimens, whether pharmacological or behavioral or both, are aimed at addressing this deficiency. Increased physical activity is, however, not a part of current intervention methods. There has been extensive research on the positive effects of physical activity on academic achievement, in a number of child-related settings, based on a variety of types of physical activities, and measured in many different ways. This paper’s hypothesis is that similar positive effects may be obtained for children with ADHD, via, possibly, improvement in motor development, and in terms of the sorts of improvements in executive function observed in academically-oriented settings. More clearly, the present discussion’s underwriting hypothesis is that increased physical activity and the attendant motor development will ameliorate to some extent the symptoms and consequences of ADHD in children. This hypothesis is tested with the aim of—hopefully—adding to the suite of intervention options available in treating children with ADHD. This hypothesis is examined through a literature review of studies both directly related to the topic and more tangentially by way of the effect of physical activity on academic achievement.
Physical Activity and ADHD
A stage-setting study for the present discussion on the potential effects of physical activity in children with ADHD is Gapin et al. (2011). A meta-analysis, the study examines the extant literature in order to determine the potential for acute and chronic physical activity to treat or ameliorate ADHD in children. A guiding principle of the study is that an overriding characteristic of ADHD in children is their deficit in executive function, as measured by their lower performance on a range of executive function tests in comparison to control groups (Gapin et al., 2011, p. 3). Crucially, the authors note that executive function “is a non-unitary construct that has been operationalized in the [physical activity] literature as consisting of planning, scheduling, inhibition, and working memory” (p. 4) – the authors note that other meta-analyses have found that “participants with ADHD exhibited significant impairment on response inhibition, vigilance, working memory, and planning” (p.4), with these symptoms contributing significantly to the overall symptoms of the disorder and its ensuing effects in the lives of children.
The theory underlying the prospects of physical activity in helping children with ADHD is based on animal studies and “studies with older adults, [where physical activity] has been found to positively impact many of the same neurobiological factors that are implicated in ADHD” (p. 4). In addition, there is considerable evidence for physical activity having positive impacts on cerebral structure, impacts “expected to be important for cognitive performance” (p. 4). Finally, of particular importance for the structure of the present discussion is the evidence for the effect of physical activity on cognitive function and, specifically, executive function – given the implication of impaired executive function in ADHD, the authors note that this provides “indirect support for the hypothesis that [physical activity] may impact the cognitive symptoms of ADHD” (p. 4). This “indirect support” motivates the present discussion’s predominant focus on the effects of physical activity and motor development in the symptoms of ADHD via the cognitive improvements/changes they bring about.
The paper most important to the present topic is the following: Verret et al. (2010) reports...