Question

Using extensive research, write a (minimum) 3500-word research paper on an empirical analysis of anti-muslim hate crimes in the United States (and elsewhere where pertinent).

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Introduction
In support of the study proposed here, this paper begins with a literature review examining a selection of empirical research on anti-Muslim hate crimes (AMHCs) in the United States. First, the statistics on the frequency of AMHCs over the last 10-15 years is discussed critically, with the influence of 9/11 necessarily pivotal. Then, structural and geographic determinants of AMHCs are presented, followed by factors thought to promote or mitigate these crimes. As will quickly become clear from the critical discussion of statistics on AMHCs, there is little solid ground on which to stand in analyzing the incidence of these hate crimes, due to a variety of factors which confound data-gathering and analysis. The thesis driving the literature review and the study proposed is that, from an empirical criminal justice perspective, the complex and complicated status of statistics on AMHCs in fact points to the nature of these crimes as irreducible to any discrete or limited set of inciting incidents or issues. In turn, AMHCs likely require complex, multi-front responses, if such hate crimes are to be mitigated and prevented. The importance of understanding AMHCs and attempting to mitigate and prevent them has never been more salient, as demonstrated by the tenor of some, unfortunately high-profile, sections of current political and public discourse.
Frequency statistics
Based on statistics spanning 1995-2005, it has been found that hate crimes against Muslims have occurred at rates roughly similar to rates of hate crimes experienced by other groups. When indexed to population levels, approximately 12 in 100,000 Muslims report being the victim of a hate crime, compared to 15 in 100,000 for Jews, 13 in 100,000 for gay men, lesbians, and bisexuals, and 8 in 100,000 for African Americans (Stotzer, 2007). Critically, it should be noted that Stotzer’s averages include the period immediately post-9/11, as well as the early years of the Afghanistan and Iraq wars, so it is not clear whether the decadal average is overly influenced by those events, i.e. by heightened anti-Muslim sentiment leading to hate crimes. However, the rate for anti-Jewish hate crimes—as an indicator of religious hate crimes—may suggest that the anti-Muslim rate is surprisingly, possibly erroneously, low, given the incidence of incendiary catalysts like 9/11 and war casualties, in turn potentially indicating under-reporting of hate crimes by Muslim victims...

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