In (at least) 12 double-spaced pages, and using at least 13 academic sources, write a research paper on the tense-aspect distinction in English.
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Broadly, the literature review presented here considers the problem of teaching and learning English verb tense-aspect combinations. Much space and consideration is, however, first given to the basic ontologies of verb classification, followed by a presentation of the fundamentals of grammatical aspect. As will be seen, this foundation is laid in order to build support for the case that the complexities and ambiguities inherent in these schemas work against their effective use in the teaching and learning of English tense-aspect, particularly for ESL learners. Then, in the latter half of this discussion, further support for this case is built by considering approaches to the ESL teaching of English verb tense-aspect combinations which do not depend on traditional, rule-centered pedagogies. Specifically, meaning-oriented approaches, such as are concerned with pragmatic factors like discourse and with the use of cognitive grammar and L1 metalanguage, are examined. Overall, substantial—if not entirely unequivocal—support is presented in favor of the adoption of these less traditional approaches to teaching verb tense-aspect combinations.
Verb classification schemes
This section begins with an overview of verb classification schemes, to provide the background necessary to later take up consideration of some of the difficulties inherent in the teaching of tense and aspect. Madden and Ferretti (2009), in presenting this background, follow approximately the schematizations proposed by, among others, Dowty (1979), Vendler (1967), and Verkuyl (1972, 1993). Madden and Ferretti (2009) begin with the standard tripartite categorization of verbs into states (e.g. know), events (e.g. reach)—elsewhere referred to as achievements (Vendler, 1967)—and processes or activities (e.g. run), together with the fourth, event-process hybrid category of accomplishments (e.g. eat a cookie); Smith (1991) adds a fifth category to cover “the class of semelfactives or points” (Hamm & Bott, 2014), e.g. flash, blink. The justification suggested for this base ontology (Madden & Ferretti, p. 2) is that these categories occur in all languages, a point of note for later...
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