1. Provide an ABSTRACT WITH THE LITERATURE CITED LIST to the class.
2. Provide a 10 MINUTE ORAL PRESENTATION in class. Prepare a mini-lecture presentation. In your presentation summarize your paper of focus – providing context and supporting arguments from the literature. A question and answer session will follow.
3. Annotated Bibliography - A WRITTEN REPORT of the material presented orally, including a list of literature cited, will be submitted within one week after the oral presentation. 1000-1500 words, 1.5 spaced, Arial, Helvetica, or Calibri font please. Figures may be included if referred to in report.
These solutions may offer step-by-step problem-solving explanations or good writing examples that include modern styles of formatting and construction of bibliographies out of text citations and references. Students may use these solutions for personal skill-building and practice. Unethical use is strictly forbidden.Milella M, Fotros A, Leyton M, et al. 2016. Cocaine cue-induced dopamine release in the human prefrontal cortex. Journal Of Psychiatry And Neuroscience [serial online]. (5):322. Available from: Science In Context, Ipswich, MA. Accessed January 25, 2018.
Craving is a strong desire to consume specific substances that makes addiction hard to overcome (Koehler et al. 2013). Studies have found that the most commonly abused drugs increase the levels of dopamine in the brain’s reward regions such as the prefrontal cortex (PFC) (Xu et al. 2017). A recent study examining smoking addiction demonstrated that inactivation of PFC lowers the intensity of the craving sensation by inhibiting drug-mediated neural stimuli in several regions of the brain. This research further suggested that craving could be increased as a response to contextual and drug-related cues of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Hayashi et al. 2013).
In the study of focus, Milella et al. (2016) measured the levels of cortical and striatal dopamine D2/3 receptor availability in cocaine-dependant patients who were/were not presented with drug-related cues. The authors found that the exposure to drug-related cues increased Likert-like visual analog scale craving scores and decreased cortical [18F]fallypride binding potential (BPND) values. While the results reported a negative correlation between craving scores and BPND, and the baseline that baseline BPND values in the substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area, such correlation was not observed in the PFC. These results conclusively implicate the levels of the midbrain D2 receptors inversely correlate with the self-reported craving and striatal changes in BPND....
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