Question

Respond to the following questions:

1. What is critical reasoning, and how can it be applied to ethical issues involving cybertechnology?
4. What role or purpose do arguments play in helping us resolve issues in cyberethics?
13. What is the Ad Hominem Fallacy? Provide an example of this fallacy in the context of cyberethics.
14. What is the Slippery Slope Fallacy? Provide an example of this fallacy in the context of cyberethics.
15. What is the Fallacy of Appeal to Authority (Ad Vericundiam)? Provide an example of this fallacy in the context of cyberethics.
16. What is the False Cause Fallacy? Provide an example of this fallacy in the context of cyberethics.
17. What is the difference between the Fallacy of Composition and the Fallacy of Division? Provide an example of each fallacy in the context of cyberethics.
18. What is the Fallacy of Ambiguity/Equivocation? Provide an example of this fallacy involving either an issue in cyberethics or an aspect of cybertechnology.
19. What is the Fallacy of Appeal to the People (Ad Populum)? Provide an example of this fallacy in the context of cyberethics.
20. What is the Virtuality Fallacy? Provide an example of this fallacy in the context of cyberethics.

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First, very broadly, critical reasoning is the means by which one is able to evaluate various aspects of discourse on any topic. A little more specifically, critical reasoning provides the tools by which one is able to ascertain whether a, say, philosophical or legal or ethical or political statement or position is ‘good enough’ – so, good enough for what? Ultimately, I think, critical reasoning enables us to decide whether we should give our agreement, our assent, our belief.

More specifically, the elemental terms in which critical reasoning operates are, as Tavani points out (p.75), claims (statements called ‘premises’) and arguments (comprised of claims linked in such a way as to lead to a concluding, final claim, a ‘conclusion’); critical reasoning “aims at assisting us in evaluating the strength of arguments and in analyzing (the truth or falsity of)...

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