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Laws of Software Evolution
Introduction
A significant proportion of the background to software evolution is assumed to be captured in Manny Lehman's Laws. When the original version of these laws where published [1], even when their revision was published [2], computing environments and software development was very different to what it is today. Subsequent look [e.g. 3, 4, and 5] has looked how these laws may be effected by current development practices. Write a short report that:
1. outlines the software development environment (the whole environment, not just tools) that existed when Lehman developed his laws
2. describes a typical software development environment (the whole environment, not just tools and processes) that exists now
3. discusses, with reasons, how well the laws of software evolution apply now
In your report, sources of information should be cited. Credit will be given for the structure of your description and the use of relevant sources not mentioned here.

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The key features of the software development environment that existed when Lehman developed his laws were conceptual and contextual rather than technical – it is only with a delineation in such terms that the impact of Lehman’s laws is best understood. So, as Lehman points out early in his seminal paper, at the time of his writing, the world of software engineering was enjoying the morning after the dawn of high level programming languages which had supplanted the costly and extremely tedious development of programs in, essentially, machine code. However, according to Lehman, there was a radical misjudgment of the reality of the existence of software programs as ongoing entities, a misjudgment which resulted in the lack of a raft of vital conceptual and, in turn, practical frameworks. This misjudgment consisted in the prevailing salient focus on initial development and installation of programs rather than on the reality staring the world in the face – that the maintenance of software programs over their lifetimes involved often far greater investments of resources and energy and often had far more productive value created by improvements and changes than...
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