QuestionQuestion

Topic: Gothic Cathedrals
Please answer ALL THREE of the following questions about the readings as specifically as possible. You must mention the author’s names for the articles/chapters you are referring to, but it is not necessary to use footnotes/endnotes/internal citations with page numbers.
Write an analytic synthesis of the following 3 articles or chapters on the Cathedral of Chartres: Spitzer, J.W. Williams, Nolan. Which one proved to be the most useful, and why?
L. Spitzer, “The Cult of the Virgin and Gothic Sculpture: Evaluating Opposition in the Chartres West Façade Capital Frieze,” Gesta 33 (1994): 132-50;
Jane Welch Williams, Bread, Wine and Money: the Windows of the Trades at Chartres Cathedral (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993) – Chapter 4:
K. Nolan, “Ritual and Visual Experience in the Capital Frieze at Chartres,” Gazette des Beaux-Arts 123 (1994): 53-72.

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Gothic archetecture emergered in the twelfth century in western Europe. The Chartres Cathedral has separated itself with unique imaginary on its facades. In Gothic-based cathedrals and churches, Jesus Christ is presented as the central figure of worship while the Chartres Cathedral's sculpture shows the Virgin Mary as an equally significant character, which is unusual. The author of this article argues the backgrounds of Gothic deviation and reasons for its existence.
The Virgin Mary was portrayed in the south and tympana in the same horizontal plane as other images of Jesus (in north and central tympana). Not only are the plane of the tympanas equal, but also the Virgin Mary covers a majority of portal designs on the capital frieze. As we look closely into the west facade and capital frieze, we see the stories that were told by the sculptor regarding the Virgin Mary's life from its beginning. The stories include Joachim and Anna (parents), the conception, walking to the Temple, Virgin's betrothal, The Annunciation, the Nativity, The visit of the Magi, and the flight into Egypt. The main focus of these images are the emotional condition of the characters. Looking at them, we can see their sorrow, despair, happiness, and joy that also reflects the ordinary life of the people in Gallo-Roman territories in the medieval times. Each image tells its...
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