Answer the following questions:

1. What are the changes that led to the need to start of HCI in the late 1970s and early 1980s? Name a specific date for the founding of the field of HCI, and tell me why you chose that date?

2. Why is HCI a hybrid of design and engineering? Explain your answers.

3. What is the difference between procedural and exploratory approaches to using technology for the first time? In general, which user groups tend towards procedural approaches, and which groups tend towards exploratory approaches?

4. Describe any three of the inherent conflicts in HCI. How do we address each of them?

5. What are the 4 ways to organize a list of menu items on a single menu?

6. Which is superior for structuring a series of menus? Broad-shallow tree structures for menus, or narrow-deep tree structures for menus? Describe WHY it’s superior.

7. Give three examples of how captions on video are used, aside from being used by the deaf and hard-of-hearing.

8. What are three problems that often occur on computer kiosks which are placed outdoors? What are some of the usability considerations for, say, a kiosk to purchase light rail tickets outdoors in Baltimore or Seattle?

9. What is the three-step process for information visualization (often called the “mantra of InfoViz”)?? Give one example of an information visualization presented in class, and describe how it is used?

10. What is the difference between recognition and recall? When do humans use recognition in user interface design? When do humans use recall? Explain how this relates to the “magic number” in short-term memory.

11. What are three factors that impact on how long it takes to move a pointing devices from point A to point B? Be specific!

12. Usability isn’t just about making happy users. Name and discuss three important quantitative metrics for measuring usability.

13. What is the difference between scanning and reading in interfaces? When do users tend to scan, and when do they tend to read? What design features can you include to support this?

*14. Name all 8 of Sheiderman’s 8 Golden Rules of Interface Design.

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Arguably, the key factor in initiating the development of HCI was the advent of personal computing – a marked change from the 50s-70s when computers were almost exclusively mainframes used by scientists and engineers. For personal computing users, “computer” effectively referred more to the interface than to the hardware running the interface, because the interface was, for users, effectively the means by which they got their work done.

The first iteration of the CHI conference, in 1982, would be a reasonable candidate for the founding of HCI. However, Shneiderman’s “Software Psychology”, published in 1980, would be my choice – because it envisioned and made explicit concepts which would become foundational for HCI....

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