Mary, Cynthia, and Michael came into the local hospital with simila...

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Mary, Cynthia, and Michael came into the local hospital with similar symptoms: severe headache, fever, loss of appetite, feeling nauseous, confusion and stiff neck. Cynthia appeared more severely ill compared to Mary and Michael. The worsening headache, confusion, and vomiting suggested an illness that infected the brain. The fever suggested an infection. The symptom of the stiff neck suggested a form of meningitis. To determine the diagnosis, a sample of cerebrospinal fluid and blood was taken from each patient. The results of the lab tests are below. Do Mary, Cynthia, and Michael have meningitis? If so, what is the evidence? If so, what is the pathogen for each patient? What is the evidence that indicates the pathogen for each patient? Why is Cynthia more severely ill than Mary and Michael? You must thoroughly and specifically explain the reasoning for each of your answers to receive proper credit.

Cerebrospinal fluid (normally clear and does not contain leukocytes)

Mary's lab results
-Cerebrospinal fluid
-Clear
-Gram stain and negative stain
-No bacterial cells present
-500 white blood cells (small number)
-Blood sample
-Red blood cells count normal
-Slightly elevated white blood cell count
-More lymphocytes, particularly natural killer cells than granulocytes

Cynthia's lab results
-Cerebrospinal fluid
-Cloudy
-More than 1500 leukocytes
-Gram stain results
-Pink diplococcci
-Blood sample
-High number of leukocytes than normal

Michael's lab results
-Cerebrospinal fluid
-Cloudy
-Few hundred mononuclear leukocytes (monocytes)
-Negative stain results
-7um round cells surrounded by a capsule several times larger than the cell itself

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Case Study Question on Meningitis
Do Mary, Cynthia and Michael have meningitis? And so, what is the evidence?
As indicated by Davis (2019), spotting symptoms of meningitis is not an easy thing to do. The early signs and symptoms of meningitis are likely confused with normal flu, whereby, meningitis may come on the heels of a severe flu. Determining whether the three individuals, Mary, Cynthia, and Michael, have meningitis will, therefore, require proper evaluation of their signs and symptoms. While there are different types of meningitis, including the viral, fungal and bacterial meningitis, some of the common symptoms include severe headache, fever and neck stiffness. Among other symptoms and signs include vomiting, nausea, confusion and...

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