Topic of Paper: Electronic restoration of vision in those with photoreceptor degenerations
Instructions: write the thesis and a research paper on the following topic.

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Chapter 1: Introduction
One of the most feared , even hard to treat , diseases that cause bad results is the complete loss of vision .Today , there are few options available to patients with such diseases that may slow or even prevent blindness , such as retinitis pigmentosa . Over the recent years, there was a wide range of development in the field .one of the options that emerged as a safe option for those patients was Electronic restoration of vision. This has been widely adopted. Actually, the progress in the field has achieved a wide range of development. As a result of this progress, to restore the vision to the extent of reading became possible. To improve the performance of retinal prostheses, advances in engineering may improve implant technology, including how the visual image is captured and converted to electrical signals, the number and size of electrodes used to stimulate the retina and the manner in which retinal neurons are stimulated by these electrodes. Over the last few years, there has been a dramatic increase in the members of the groups developing electronic retinal prostheses designed to restore vision in patients who are severely visually impaired. With further engineering developments and a better understanding of how the retina responds to a device, it is likely that improvements in vision will be possible with these devices in the future.1
1 what are the diseases that affect the retina?
2- How is the development in the methods used?
3 – What are the procedures that help to evaluate?
Chapter 2 Literature review
1-RP refers to a family of inherited retinal degenerations that are caused by a variety of different mutations affecting rod photoreceptors, resulting in gradual loss of rods followed by cones. RP is associated with over 150 mutations in photoreceptor associated proteins and as many as 50 per cent of patients have no known family
2- AMD is a disease that results in damage of parts photoreceptors. Both genetic and environmental factors influence the advancement of AMD. This may include factors such as age, gender and family history and infectious agents or the inheritance of a range of single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes affecting components of the innate immune system, such as complement factor H, complement factor B or C3.1-2
3 -Retinal prostheses are among the intervention techniques to assist people with late stage-retinal degeneration. All clinical approaches use electrical stimulation that ultimately leads to signaling from surviving Ganglion cells to higher areas even to the visual areas that are higher in the brain responsible for those cells. The goal of these devices is to induce localized regions of visual perception in the visual field, known as phosphenes. A key component of a retinal prosthesis is the means by which information the world of visualization is converted to an electrical current. Currently, there are two main approaches to do this. The first is a device that incorporates an array of microphotodiodes. The device is implanted in the location of...

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