This material may consist of step-by-step explanations on how to solve a problem or examples of proper writing, including the use of citations, references, bibliographies, and formatting. This material is made available for the sole purpose of studying and learning - misuse is strictly forbidden.The fundamental rights guaranteed by the State to the individual citizens have witnessed in the recent times, widening debate regarding the horizontal and vertical application of rights. Historically, the recognition of human rights was meant to be a protection for the individuals against the state organs and inhibit the growth of unmandated state power. That, is individual protection of rights in a vertical form by the state government. But, increasingly, another version, horizontal, has also been gaining attention. Infact, the issue of fundamental rights has become an arena of debates involving the vertical and horizontal interpetations. That is, whether these rights provided by the Constitution may be enforced vertically against the State or can be enforced Horizontally ( against non-state actors and individuals).
In this era of globalization with the rise of non-state actors, the debate has become all the more challenging for the nations. In interaction with the private agencies and non-state actors, the question arises: if there is infringement of the rights of the individuals, will the states allow for the horizontal interpretation of laws? Will the individuals be safeguarded. The constitutions of several states, including the U.S. date back to eighteenth century, while this is a new situation faced by the...