What were the methods, nature, and aims of the Abbasid Caliphate (APA style research paper with scholarly references).
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The Abbasid Caliphate is an example of an Islamic pluralistic empire galvanized by a powerful bureaucratic center and the ideology of Islamic law, science, and culture that permeated the realm in both secular and religious life. In this paper, I will show how the Abbasid Caliphate was supported by a discourse permeated in the concept of universal Islam, a concentrated bureaucratic central power, which effectively and efficiently directed its aims through a fairly advanced and sophisticated political machine....