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1. Describe the mechanism by which normal fluid regulation in the body occurs.
2. What is considered to be excessive thirst and urination in an adult?
3. List and briefly describe the four types of diabetes insipidus.
4. How is pituitary diabetes insipidus diagnosed?
5. In what ways is diabetes insipidus similar to diabetes mellitus? In what ways do they differ?
6. How does the mechanism by which diuresis occurs with diabetes insipidus differ from that which occurs in diabetes mellitus?
7. How does diabetes insipidus compare with a condition called syndrome of inappropriate anti-diuretic hormone (siadh)?
8. What other conditions result in polyuria and polydipsia (pu/pd)?
9. What is ddavp and how is it administered?
10. Why should a person who has pituitary diabetes insipidus and does not feel unreasonably inconvenienced by the symptoms take treatment?
11. Why is adh also known as vasopressin?

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1. The main organ controlling the body fluid amount and composition is the kidney. However, many hormones are involved in orchestring this process. ADH is the hormone directly involved in water excretion in the kidneys, acting on aquaporin channels in the collecting ducts, increasing water excretion. Also, another set of hormones that regulate sodium concentration and consequently fluids: renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Renin is released from juxtaglomerular cells as a response to low blood pressure, and via aldosterone it increases sodium reabsorption and water retention.
2. Polydipsia is defines as excessive thirst and drinking. Polyuria is directly dependent on the amount of...

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