QuestionQuestion

1. Describe the process of urine formation under
A)FILTERATION,
B) REABSORPTION
C) SECRETION,
2. Trace the meiosis of oogenesis
3. Trace the meiosis of spermatogenesis
4. What are buffer systems? List SIX buffer systems……. 5 lines
5. Describe the positive feedback mechanism of FEVER……..5 lines
6. Describe renal compensation for acidosis…….5 lines

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1. First step in urine formation is filtration. The functional unit of kidney is nephron . Filtration occurs in part of nephron called renal corpuscle which is formed of glomerulus and Bowman capsule. Glomerular membrane, consisted of three layers , is particularly design in such a way to prevent the passage of some substance of certain size and electrical charge, so the membrane is permeable to almost everything except for big molecules (>50-60 nm) and red blood cells, and negative charge of membrane mostly prevents the albumin filtration. This process is driven by Starling forces and the ultrafiltrate that is made is plasma-like, only with little proteins. Glomelural filtration rate(GFR) is normally >90 ml/min.
Reabsorption occurs subsequently to glomerular filtration. During reabsorption in tubules, water and solutes (glucose, amino-acids, Na+...

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