1. Describe the process of urine formation under
2. Trace the meiosis of oogenesis
3. Trace the meiosis of spermatogenesis
4. What are buffer systems? List SIX buffer systems……. 5 lines
5. Describe the positive feedback mechanism of FEVER……..5 lines
6. Describe renal compensation for acidosis…….5 lines

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1. First step in urine formation is filtration. The functional unit of kidney is nephron . Filtration occurs in part of nephron called renal corpuscle which is formed of glomerulus and Bowman capsule. Glomerular membrane, consisted of three layers , is particularly design in such a way to prevent the passage of some substance of certain size and electrical charge, so the membrane is permeable to almost everything except for big molecules (>50-60 nm) and red blood cells, and negative charge of membrane mostly prevents the albumin filtration. This process is driven by Starling forces and the ultrafiltrate that is made is plasma-like, only with little proteins. Glomelural filtration rate(GFR) is normally >90 ml/min.
Reabsorption occurs subsequently to glomerular filtration. During reabsorption in tubules, water and solutes (glucose, amino-acids, Na+...

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