Biology is the science of life and it comes from the Greek words bios, which means life, and logos, which means science. Biology encompasses a broad spectrum of sciences and scientific disciplines. Biology studies living creatures, their structure, function and behavior, as well as the entire biosphere. Biological sciences differ in specific methodology and by the level of organization and groups of organisms that are the subject of study.

Modern biology has five basic axiomatic principles.

  • The cell is the basic unit of life, i.e. the basic structural and functional unit of all known organisms.
  • New species and heritable traits are the result of evolution.
  • The gene is the basic unit of heredity.
  • Organisms regulate their internal mechanisms in order to maintain a stable state of health.
  • Living organisms consume and transform various forms of energy.



Foundations of modern biology


Cell theory

Cell theory states that the cell is the fundamental unit of life. All living organisms are formed from one or more cells, or the express product of such cells such as hair and nails, etc. All cells arise from other cells through cell division.

The cell is also considered to be the basic unit in many pathological processes. In addition, the phenomenon of the power flow takes place in cells, which function is known as metabolism. The cells contain the genetic information (DNA), which is passed on to the new cell during cell division.



The central organizing concept of biology is that living creatures change and develop through evolution. All known life forms have a common origin. The theory of evolution postulates that all organisms on Earth come from a common ancestor or from the same gene pool. The last universal common ancestor of all organisms is believed to have appeared before about 3.5 billion years ago.         

Famous biologists

These are the most famous biologists worldwide and their discoveries:

  • Aristotle – famous for the classification of living things
  • Galen – famous for introducing medical experimentation
  • Antonie van Leeuwenhoek – known as the father of microbiology
  • Robert Hooke – famous for discovering the cell
  • Carl Linnaeus – known as the father of modern taxonomy
  • Charles Darwin – famous for the theory of evolution
  • Gregor Mendel – the founder of modern genetics
  • Alfred Russel Wallace – famous for the Wallace Line
  • Watson and Crick – famous for discovering the structure of DNA
  • Wilmut & Campbell – famous for being the first scientists to clone a mammal


Biology’s disciplines


  • Algology studying algae
  • Astrobiology studies the possibility of life beyond Earth and the origin of life in the cosmos
  • Biogeography studies the forms and rules of geographic distribution of organisms
  • Biochemistry studies the "molecule of life" and metabolic processes
  • Botany studies plants
  • Genetics studies the inheritance of traits
  • Ecology studies the relationships between organisms and the environment
  • Zoology studies animals
  • Mycology studies fungi
  • Microbiology studies microorganisms
  • Molecular biology studies relationships between nucleic acids, proteins, and succession of the morphology of the studied organisms
  • Cytology or cell biology studies cells
  • Physiology studies metabolism and homeostasis of organisms
  • Histology studies tissue
  • Systematics and taxonomy are used to describe the hierarchical structure of biodiversity
  • The theory of evolution studies the occurrence and variability of life

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